Archibald Campbell (1739-1791)

Late in 1778 Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell was dispatched by the British commander in chief in North America, Sir Henry Clinton, to proceed against Savannah. Through his Georgia campaign, particularly his capture of Savannah and Augusta, Campbell achieved one of the few unqualified British successes in the American Revolution (1775-83).
Baptized at Inveraray, Argyllshire, Scotland, on August 24, 1739, Archibald Campbell was the third son of Elizabeth Fisher and James Campbell, commissary of the Western Isles. An engineering officer, Campbell served in Guadalupe, Dominica, and other West Indies islands before becoming chief engineer for the British East India Company in Bengal, India, from 1768 to 1772.
With the outbreak of revolution in America, Campbell recruited for and received a commission of lieutenant colonel in the Seventy-first (Fraser's) Highlanders. Captured by patriot forces in Boston Harbor on June 16, 1776, he was exchanged for Ethan Allen on May 6, 1778.
On November 8, 1778, Campbell received unexpected orders to take command of 3,000 men sailing the next day from New York to invade Georgia. The expedition captured Savannah in late December. He next led a column into the interior and captured Augusta on January 31, 1779. When Georgia Loyalists failed to appear there, Campbell began a withdrawal on February 14. While awaiting transportation from Savannah to England to marry Amelia, daughter of the artist Allan Ramsey, Archibald Campbell restored the colonial government under his commission as civil governor. Thus Georgia became the only part of the United States ever reduced back to the status of a colony.
Campbell continued his distinguished career. He ended the American Revolution as lieutenant governor and major general in Jamaica (1779-81). In 1782 he was appointed governor of Jamaica. He became a Knight of the Bath in 1785 and served as governor of Madras from 1786 to 1789. Campbell died March 31, 1791, in London and is buried in Westminster Abbey.
close

Loading

Further Reading
Archibald Campbell, Journal of an Expedition against the Rebels of Georgia in North America, ed. Colin Campbell (Darien, Ga.: Ashantilly Press, 1981).

Kenneth Coleman, The American Revolution in Georgia, 1763-1789 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1958).

Kenneth Coleman, ed., A History of Georgia, 2d ed. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1991).

Robert S. Davis, "Portrait of a Governor," Atlanta Historical Society 26 (1982): 45-48.
Cite This Article
Davis, Robert S. "Archibald Campbell (1739-1791)." New Georgia Encyclopedia. 29 August 2014. Web. 04 September 2015.
From Our Home Page
Howard Finster (ca. 1915-2001)

The Reverend Howard Finster emerged from the rural Appalachian culture of northeast Alabama and northwest Georgia to become one of America's most important creative personalities in the last quart

Read more...
Southern Labor Archives

The Southern Labor Archives is committed to "collecting, preserving and making available the documentary heritage of Southern workers and their unions, as well as that of workers and unions having

Read more...
Georgia Tech Football

With one of college football's dominant programs in the first half of the twentieth century, the Georgia Institute of Techno

Read more...
Poultry

The Georgia poultry industry is a highly mechanized production complex that markets chicken and egg products around the globe.

Read more...
Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries