Piedmont Geologic Province
Rocks and Geologic Structures
Major, long-inactive fault zones divide the Piedmont into several belts. The fault zones and the rocks between them generally have a northeastern strike, parallel to the overall trend of the Appalachian Mountains, which rose about 500 million years ago. In spite of much detailed work by many geologists, not all agree on the extent, interrelationships, and significance of these faults, although general patterns of development have been established.
In a broad
Major amphibolite, or metamorphic bodies, also occur in these belts. These bodies contain remnants of severely deformed pillow lavas, or mounds of lava that are indicative of submarine extrusions. The Carolina Slate belt contains the remnants of shallow subvolcanic intrusions, volcanic sediments, and extrusive rocks, all part of an island system characterized by explosive volcanism and hydrothermal activity, much like today's Japanese and Philippine islands and the floor of the Sea of Japan. Graves Mountain, whose deposits are thought to be exhalative (caused by submarine hot water vents) in origin, also occurs in the Carolina slate belt. At one time, the metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont may have formed the substructure of a volcanic arc, which has been compared to the present-day Indonesian arc.
The Piedmont was one of the early subjects of the Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) project. Seismic reflections were used to determine the deep structure of the Piedmont area. Interpretation of COCORP data indicates that the Piedmont consists of a thin slab of rock that was thrust a great distance from the southeast onto the North American continent.
Highlights of the Piedmont
Graves Mountain is known for kyanite, pyrophyllite, lazulite, pyrite, and rutile as well as many other minerals. The aluminum-rich mineral kyanite was mined at Graves Mountain from about 1963 to 1984 for use in ceramics and insulators. Some of the last kyanite mined was used in insulating tiles for space shuttles. The rutile found at Graves Mountain is the only mineral occurrence in Georgia noted in the classic Dana's Manual of Mineralogy. Mining for well-formed rutile crystals began in the nineteenth century.
Gold deposits found near Dahlonega in 1829 caused what many consider to be the first major gold rush in the United States, and mining technology developed at Dahlonega traveled west to California with the forty-niners.
Soapstone Ridge in Atlanta, as well as numerous amphibolite bodies in other parts of the Piedmont, are the remnants of an ancient oceanic lithosphere (the earth's crust and upper mantle).
Numerous dikes of diabase, a fine-grained rock, that cut through the Piedmont are evidence of the fracturing and igneous activity during the final mountain-building event of the Paleozoic era, when Pangaea, the early supercontinent, was torn apart. This event produced the Atlantic Ocean, leaving North and South America on one side, and Europe and Africa on the other.
The fall line forms the transition between the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont. Along this line, the hard rocks of the Piedmont start cropping out to produce rapids and waterfalls. The communities of Augusta, Columbus, Macon, and Milledgeville developed at such places, where modes of water transportation had to change. The power of the rivers was also harnessed at these sites for manufacturing.
F. A. Cook, L. D. Brown, and J. E. Oliver, "The Southern Appalachians and the Growth of Continents," Scientific American 243 (1980): 156-68.
F. A. Cook et al., "Thin-skinned Tectonics in the Crystalline Southern Appalachians: COCORP Seismic-reflection Profiling in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont," Geology 7 (1979): 563-67.
R. D. Hatcher Jr., "Tectonic Synthesis of the U.S. Appalachians, " in The Appalachian-Ouachita Orogen in the United States, ed. R. D. Hatcher Jr., W. A. Thomas, and G. W. Viele (Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America, 1989), 511-35.
N. Rast, "The Evolution of the Appalachian Chain," in The Geology of North America: An Overview, ed. A. W. Bally and A. R. Palmer (Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America, 1989), 323-48.
Thomas Hanley, Columbus State University
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