Spelman College, the nation's oldest historically black college for women,
Spelman College's history began on April 11, 1881. With the help of Frank Quarles, pastor of Atlanta's Friendship Baptist Church, Sophia B. Packard and Harriet E. Giles, schoolteachers and Baptist missionaries from New England,
Through the philanthropy of John D. Rockefeller, whom Packard and Giles met at a church conference in Cleveland, Ohio, the school was able to relocate from its basement quarters to a nine-acre site once used as army barracks by Union troops during the Civil War. In 1884 the school expressed its gratitude for Rockefeller's generosity by changing the name of the school to Spelman Seminary in honor of the parents of his wife, Laura Spelman Rockefeller. The school was legally organized with a charter and a board of trustees in 1888 under the presidency of Packard.
In 1891 Harriet Giles succeeded Sophia Packard and served as president of Spelman for eighteen years. During her tenure the school enrolled 800 students,
From 1910 to 1953 the seminary experienced unprecedented growth during the presidencies of Lucy Hale Tapley (1910-27) and Florence Matilda Read (1927-53). On June 1, 1924, Spelman Seminary officially became Spelman College, and substantial strides were made in its curriculum and organization. An "Agreement of Affiliation," signed in 1929, set up a university system in which Spelman and Morehouse colleges served as undergraduate institutions and Atlanta University served as a graduate school, thereby providing the undergraduate institutions immediate access to graduate facilities in an era when blacks were denied entrance to southern research universities.
Stewart (1976-86) strengthened the faculty, tripled the college's endowment, and improved academic quality with the addition of new majors and career-oriented minors and the establishment of the Comprehensive Writing Program, the Honors Program, and the Women's Research and Resource Center. As Spelman entered its second century of service to women who achieve, it remained committed to maintaining its identity as a distinctive liberal arts college for women.
In 1987 Johnnetta Betsch Cole became the first African American woman president of Spelman College.
History was again made in 1997, as Audrey Forbes Manley, a 1955 graduate of Spelman, became the institution's first alumna president. Under her leadership (1997-2002) the college made the transition to the twenty-first century through strategic planning, strengthening the infrastructure, technology enhancement, and community building. Hallmarks of her tenure included a student-centered environment, land acquisition for the college, renovation and restoration of campus facilities, alumnae empowerment, access to technology, and the institutionalized delivery of community service.
In April 2002 Beverly Daniel Tatum, dean of the college and acting president of Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts, was named Spelman's ninth president. A scholar, teacher, author, administrator, and race relations expert, Tatum brought to the Spelman community twenty-two years of experience in higher education, liberal arts education, and women's education. She initiated a strategic plan for Spelman that includes five goals—academic excellence, leadership development, improving the infrastructure, improving the visibility of accomplishments of the campus community, and exemplary customer service—all designed to create a vision for Spelman of "Nothing Less than the Best."
Spelman College has grown from its roots as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary to become one of the nation's prominent institutions of higher learning in the liberal arts tradition. Spelman's steadfast commitment to preparing black women
Johnetta Cross-Brazzell, "Brick without Straw: Missionary-Sponsored Black Higher Education in the Post-Emancipation Era," Journal of Higher Education 63 (January/February 1992).
Beverly Guy-Sheftall and Jo Moore Stewart, Spelman: A Centennial Celebration, 1881-1981 (Atlanta: Spelman College, 1981).
Albert E. Manley, A Legacy Continues: The Manley Years at Spelman College, 1953-1976 (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1995).
Florence M. Read, The Story of Spelman College (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1961).
Taronda Spencer, Spelman College
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