Paulding County, in northwest Georgia, is the state's eighty-ninth county, created in 1832 as one of nine counties carved from the original Cherokee County. It was named for John Paulding, one of three New Yorkers who captured the British spy John André. André was the accomplice of Benedict Arnold, a general during the Revolutionary War (1775-83) who hatched a treasonous plot to surrender an American fort to the British enemy.
Originally held by Creek Indians, the land was lost in battle to the Cherokee Nation in 1755. In turn the Cherokee lost the land to white settlers who arrived in the nineteenth century. Many of them came in response to the discovery of gold, with two veins running through what was to become Paulding County, in 1829. Upon this discovery the state broke all its treaties with the Cherokee and divided the land into forty-acre "Gold Lots," which it distributed by lottery in 1832. Gold seekers migrated from other parts of Georgia and from other states. Many did not find gold but remained in the area to farm.
By 1840 agriculture was the primary occupation in Paulding County, followed by manufacturing and trades. Primary crops were corn, tobacco, and wheat, with some cotton. Nonfarm enterprises included a number of gristmills, sawmills, potteries, and tanneries.
The new county seat was named Dallas for George Mifflin Dallas, who had just finished serving as vice president in U.S. president James K. Polk's administration. Incorporated in 1854, Dallas has been home to several courthouses, the first described as resembling a shack, three miles from today's city center. The next courthouse was built in the mid-1850s and was replaced by the current structure in 1892. Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, the current building has been renovated several times and was provided with a three-story annex in 1990. Other incorporated cities in the county are Braswell and Hiram.
After the Civil War the county languished for decades, experiencing the difficulties common to other agricultural areas in the South beset by the loss of numerous young men, overused soil, and economic depression. Life for the county began to improve in 1882, however, when the East Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia Railroad built lines through it. The railway was directly responsible for tripling the population in Dallas by the end of the decade. The town of Braswell was created around a depot placed at the site by the railway in 1882, when it laid tracks through the area.
By the turn of the century Paulding County was flourishing. Many one-room schools dotted the county, an indication of the population boom and a testament to the high value residents placed on education.
Agribusiness is a major economic factor in the county, but some areas have become bedroom communities for Cobb County and Atlanta, making Paulding County one of the fastest-growing counties in the state.
The Paulding County Historical Society operates the Paulding County Museum in a building constructed in 1861, which served as the first school in Dallas. It was used as a hospital during the Civil War and returned to its school functions after the war. Later it became a private family residence, and then a church service building. It was moved to its present location in 1997.
The Hiram Colored School, located in Hiram, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. Built in 1930 with funds from the Julius Rosenwald Fund, this wood-frame structure served
The cemetery of New Hope Church (now nestled in a commercial section of Dallas) is the site of the Civil War battle named for the church. There, on May 25, 1864, Confederate general Joseph Johnston's men won a significant victory over General Sherman's troops (under Joseph Hooker).
Pickett's Mill Battlefield Historic Site is considered one of the best-preserved Civil War battlegrounds in the country. Fought on the grounds of a farm and gristmill owned by Benjamin and Malachi Pickett on Little Pumpkin-Vine Creek, the battle is considered the worst Union defeat of the Atlanta campaign. The nearly 800-acre site provides vivid evidence of the soldiers' battlements and a sense of how the area looked during the battle.
The Silver Comet Trail for bicyclists and hikers runs through the middle of Paulding County. The trail begins in Cobb County, goes through Paulding County, and ends in Polk County on the Alabama border, where it meets the Chief Ladiga Trail and continues to Anniston, Alabama. Completed in 2008, the trail is the longest continous bicycle path in the United States. Of its total 95.5 miles, 61.5 run through Georgia.
Chattahoochee Technical College, based in Marietta, operates a campus in Dallas.
According to the 2010 U.S. census, the population of Paulding County was 142,324, a substantial increase from the 2000 population of 81,678.
Susan R. Boatright and Douglas C. Bachtel, eds., Georgia County Guide (Athens: Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development, University of Georgia, annual).
W. A. Foster with Thomas Allan Scott, Paulding County: Its People and Places (Roswell, Ga.: W. H. Wolfe Associates, 1983).
Paulding County Heritage Book Committee, The Heritage of Paulding County, Georgia, 1832-1999 (Dallas, Ga.: Paulding County Historical Society, 1999).
Elizabeth B. Cooksey, Savannah
A project of the Georgia Humanities Council, in partnership with the University of Georgia Press, the University System of Georgia/GALILEO, and the Office of the Governor.