Most memorials are monuments or markers, but others take different forms. Confederate memorials in Georgia include the beautiful depictions of Georgia's military leaders and battles in the stained-glass windows at Rhodes Hall in Atlanta, as well as the carving on Stone Mountain of Robert E. Lee, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, and Jefferson Davis, which is the largest Confederate memorial in the world. Memorials to individual soldiers include the large obelisk to Captain Henry Wirz (Andersonville) and statues to generals
Markers consist primarily of signs or plaques that provide information about war-related individuals or events. Located throughout the state, they include government historical markers, markers installed under the Works Progress Administration (a New Deal program instituted by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt), and markers placed by organizations or individuals. Examples of federal government markers are found in Georgia at Fort Pulaski, the battlefield at Chickamauga, and Kennesaw Mountain. Numerous state markers related to the Civil War discuss troop movements, engagements, or historical sites. Examples include the birthplace marker in Coweta County for William Thomas Overby, who is known as the "Confederate Nathan Hale," and the marker in Augusta's Magnolia Cemetery for the burial location of seven Confederate generals from Georgia.
Characteristics of Monuments
Inscriptions, ranging from the simple to the poetic to the highly political, grace Georgia's monuments. "Lest We Forget" or "Our Confederate Dead" are examples of simple sentiments found on numerous monuments. Typical expressions of extended sentiments include poet Theodore O'Hara's lines, "On fame's eternal camping ground / Their silent tents are spread, / And glory guards, with solemn round / The bivouac of the dead," which is found on the Colquitt County monument in Moultrie; and "They struggled for constitutional government as established by our Fathers and though defeated, they left to posterity and record [sic] of honor and glory more valuable than power or riches," found on the Randolph County monument in Cuthbert. Other monuments, especially some newer ones, list the names of men who were either native to or buried within the county in which the monument stands. Fine examples of this type are found in Blairsville (Union County), Carrollton, Dalton, Dawsonville (Dawson County), Elberton, LaFayette (Walker County), and Springfield (Effingham County).
Monuments were originally placed in a town's most prestigious location, such as along a major thoroughfare, on the grounds of the courthouse or city hall, or in a cemetery. Over the years, however, mostly due to changing traffic patterns, many monuments have been moved to safer locations; the monument in Albany has been moved at least four times.
The state's first dedicated monument, constructed to the memory of "Our Boys in Gray," was erected by the Linwood Sunday School in June 1866 and is located at Fort Gordon, outside Augusta. Although at least two other states claim the first Confederate monument, the monument at Fort
More than sixty monuments were built and dedicated during the first two decades of the twentieth century. These include many of the typical pedestal-shaft-soldier monuments found throughout Georgia. Examples exist in Brunswick, Cedartown (Polk County), Covington, Dublin, Eatonton, Gainesville, and Marietta. The first Confederate monument to women of the Confederacy was dedicated in Rome in 1910. The construction of new monuments waned in the first half of the twentieth century due to the hardships brought by World War I (1917-18), the Great Depression, and World War II (1941-45). From 1920 until 1980 approximately twenty-five monuments were dedicated in
A resurgence of interest in Confederate monuments, mainly among local chapters of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, resulted in the dedication of around thirty monuments between 1980 and 2005. Fine examples of the colorful monuments completed during this time period can be found in Colbert (Madison County), Chickamauga, Cumming, and Lawrenceville.
Barry L. Brown and Gordon R. Elwell, Crossroads of Conflict: A Guide to Civil War Sites in Georgia (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010).
Isabell S. Buzzett, Confederate Monuments of Georgia (Atlanta: United Daughters of the Confederacy, 1984).
Confederated Southern Memorial Association, History of the Confederated Memorial Associations of the South, rev. ed. (New Orleans, La.: Graham Press, 1904).
Frank M. McKenney, The Standing Army (Alpharetta, Ga.: W. H. Wolfe Associates, 1993).
United Daughters of the Confederacy, Georgia Division, Confederate Monuments and Markers in Georgia (Fernandina Beach, Fla.: Wolfe Publishing, 2002).
Ralph W. Widener Jr., Confederate Monuments: Enduring Symbols of the South and the War between the States (Washington, D.C.: Andromeda Associates, 1982).
David N. Wiggins, Georgia's Confederate Monuments and Cemeteries (Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia, 2006).
David N. Wiggins, Georgia's Confederate Sons, vol. 1 (Carrollton, Ga.: University of West Georgia Press, 2007).
David N. Wiggins, Remembering Georgia's Confederates (Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia, 2005).
David N. Wiggins, Carrollton
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