NGE >> The Arts >> Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Historic Preservation >> Architecture: Design >> Suburban Historicism, 1920-1935 >> Philip Trammell Shutze (1890-1982)
Philip Trammell Shutze (1890-1982)
Philip Trammell Shutze's career as a designer emerged directly from the Atlanta architectural firm of Hentz, Reid, and Adler in Italianate and Georgian revival works of the mid-1920s.
In Tryggversson (1919-23), built for Andrew Calhoun, Shutze brought into prominence the aesthetic of the Italian Renaissance country house, extending the Italian palazzo stylistic precedent set
Despite its Palladian window on the garden elevation, a house for Floyd McRae (1927-29) is an exercise in an English medieval vernacular style with Cotswold compositional details, a work rivaled only by Shutze's Spring Hill Mortuary (1927-28). The architect's medieval aesthetic is successfully translated to a French provincial farm environment at the Monie Ferst House (1929) and later reduced to an ordinary suburban Tudor for Charles H. Candler Jr.
Beyond these European-inspired house styles, Shutze also admired American colonial, Georgian, and Federal forms. Knollwood (1929), built for W. H. Kiser, is among his best Neo-Georgian houses. The Patterson-Carr House (1939) is a picturesque and effective colonial revival. Tendencies toward an English Regency and restrained neoclassicism are evidenced in commissions of 1936-37 at the Albert E. Thornton, Daniel Conklin, and Benjamin Smith houses, and in the Smith House mixed rooftop, with a hint of Nautical Moderne. The streamlined phase of 1930s Moderne particularly informed the interior of the Capital City Club (1938), but Shutze typically avoided any of the several emerging modernist aesthetics of his late career. His short partnership (1945-50) with the more modernist J. Warren Armistead produced, for example, the West End Sears department store in Atlanta (1950-51, razed), but Shutze soon parted company with both Armistead and the modern.
In addition to private residences Shutze executed noteworthy institutional work for Atlanta schools and churches, including North Fulton, later Atlanta International (1925-33), and Boys (later Henry Grady, 1922-24) high schools; the Science Building (1930) and Chapel (1924) at Spelman College; Glenn Memorial Church (1931); the Temple (1930-31); and small chapels at Grady Memorial Hospital (1954-58) and at the Education Building (1939) at Emory University, the latter based on Christopher Wren's St. Stephen, Walbrook Church (1672-79) in London, England.
These schools and churches demonstrate Shutze's versatility and unerring eye in managing proportion and scale in an aesthetic enriched by classical detail and well-observed ornament. Shutze's school activities at the American Academy in Rome included measuring and recording profiles, photographing classical monuments and ornamental detail, and developing a scrapbook collection of images that later served his executed work in Atlanta and throughout the South. The Temple and the Academy of Medicine in Atlanta (1940) are balanced and restrained designs demonstrating a sustained mastery of classical principals giving rise to Shutze's preeminent position as a classical architect.
Robert M. Craig and Elizabeth M. Dowling, "The Manor Born, 1900-1940," in From Plantation to Peachtree: A Century and a Half of Classic Atlanta Homes, ed. Jane F. Schneider(Atlanta: Haas, 1987).
Elizabeth M. Dowling, American Classicist: The Architecture of Philip Trammell Shutze (New York: Rizzoli International, 1989).
Elizabeth M. Dowling, "Philip Trammell Shutze: A Study of the Influence of Academic Discipline on His Early Residential Designs," Atlanta Historical Journal 30 (summer 1986): 33-54.
Walter L. Roberts, "Philip Trammell Shutze: His Life, Selected Works, His Contribution" (master's thesis, Georgia State University, 1987).
Gerald Sams, AIA Guide to the Architecture of Atlanta (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1993).
Robert M. Craig, Georgia Institute of Technology
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