Union Camp was formed in Franklin, Virginia, by the 1956 merger of Union Bag and Paper and Camp Manufacturing, whose histories extended back to the nineteenth century. Francis Wolle, inventor of the first bag-making machine in 1851, founded a company in West Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, that was a predecessor of Union Bag and Paper, which was incorporated in 1875. The company centralized manufacturing close to its paper mill at Hudson Falls, New York, in 1892.
Two technological breakthroughs in the paper industry at large fundamentally affected Union Bag's future. The first was the development in 1884 of the process for using sulfate pulp to make strong, brown paper called kraft, which is well suited for conversion into bags. The second was the production, in 1911, of sulfate pulp from southern pine, a cheaper, faster-growing substitute for northern spruce.
Meanwhile, Camp Manufacturing, founded in 1887 in Franklin, Virginia, as a lumber company by Paul, Robert, and James Camp, began producing kraft paper in 1936 and eventually white paper as well. When Union Bag and Paper and Camp Manufacturing merged in 1956, their combined sales were $163 million. Sales reached the billion-dollar mark in 1976 and $4.5 billion in 1998, by which time Union Camp had evolved into a diversified forest products company with 18,300 employees, assets of almost $5.2 billion, and operations in many states and foreign countries. Paper and packaging constituted 60 percent of sales, but the company also engaged in paper distribution, chemicals, lumber, and land development. It also owned more than 1.5 million acres of timber in the Southeast, including Georgia.
Although Union Camp's headquarters were in Wayne, New Jersey, all four of its major pulp and paper mills were in the Southeast. The Savannah plant was the largest of these, with an annual production capacity of 1.25 million tons of kraft paper and linerboard (for boxes). Georgia facilities outside of Savannah included packaging plants in Atlanta, Augusta, Griffin, Statesboro, and Tifton, and lumber mills in Folkston and Meldrim.
Union Camp's world-class operations, low-cost structure, and product strengths attracted the attention of International Paper, an industry giant in the same league as Georgia-Pacific and Weyerhaeuser. The sales of International Paper, which acquired Union Camp in 1999 for $7.9 billion, amounted to $19.5 billion, four times more than those of Union Camp.
Susan E. Dick and Mandi D. Johnson, "The Smell of Money: The Pulp and Paper-Making Industry in Savannah, 1931-1947," Georgia Historical Quarterly 84 (summer 2000): 308-23.
Robert R. Jacobson, "Union Camp Corporation," International Directory of Company Histories, vol. 4 (Chicago: St. James Press, 1991).
W. Craig McClelland, Union Camp Corporation: A Legacy of Leadership (New York: Newcomen Society, 1995).
John Campbell, University of Georgia
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