Fort Stewart is located about forty miles west of Savannah. It was created in 1940 as an antiaircraft training facility. In 2004 the 280,000-acre facility, the largest in area in the eastern United States, is the base
The effort to locate the antiaircraft training facility to the Savannah area was led by U.S. congressman Hugh Peterson Sr. of Ailey. In the spring of 1940 he introduced a bill that led to the creation of the facility. The new installation was named Camp Stewart, after General Daniel Stewart, a Revolutionary War (1775-83) hero from Liberty County.
The government acquired the first tract of land in July 1940. A location one mile from the small town of Hinesville was selected as the main entrance to the facility.
In September 1940 six carpenters began construction of the buildings. The military used workers from a Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camp located at the entrance to Camp Stewart and CCC camps at Jesup and Baxley to help clear land and build fire towers and roads. Within months about 2,000 civilian construction workers had built hundreds of frame buildings and thousands of tent frames, using about 17 million board feet of lumber. Included in the construction were a laundry facility that took up an entire acre, a 992-bed hospital, two fire stations, a guest house, a service center, a 2,000-seat theater, mess halls, chapels, exchanges, a commander's office, and many other buildings.
During World War II (1941-45) Camp Stewart was also used as a training site for other personnel and as a prisoner of war camp. In 1943 a section of the reservation
Antiaircraft training started in early December 1940 on the "miniature" range. By July 1941 the military was prepared to begin live-round antiaircraft weapons training
The Camp Stewart commander was aware of the lack of respectable recreational facilities and events for the tens of thousands of troops stuck in the countryside. The camp had a service club where soldiers could relax in their off-duty moments. Troops put on musical productions and comedies, regimental dances were held in the service club, and the cafeteria was purported to be "a good place to get delicious food at economical prices." Each regiment had a recreational hall and canteen where soldiers could have a beer, buy magazines, get a haircut, or play games.
Many soldiers took advantage of the bus service to Savannah for weekend leaves. Savannah civic groups and the city council collected donations and opened a social center for the 12,000-15,000 soldiers who descended on the city every weekend.
As soon as the troops began to arrive in large numbers, local entrepreneurs and outsiders set up shop in hastily built shacks just outside the camp. The new "business" section at the front gate was referred to as Boomtown, and the side-gate district was known as Zoomtown. Overnight, drinking clubs like the Bursting Bomb and the Twenty-one Club opened for business.
When the war ended, the juke joints were quickly boarded up, and for the next five years Hinesville residents considered their small village practically a ghost town. Camp Stewart was used as a deactivation center until late 1945; by mid-1946 only sixty military and civilian employees were working at the camp. From 1946 to 1950 the Georgia National Guard used Camp Stewart for summer training exercises.
With the start of the Korean War in the summer of 1950, the camp was reactivated. After the end of hostilities in Korea in 1953, Camp Stewart
The former World War II antiaircraft artillery training facility is used in the twenty-first century for tank, field artillery, helicopter gunnery, and small arms training. Almost 16,000 military personnel are currently stationed at the fort, and more than 3,000 civilians are employed by the military.
Hunter Army Airfield
Hunter Army Airfield serves the army in conjunction with Wright Army Airfield. The facility is about six miles from Fort Stewart and is part of the Fort Stewart complex. The army shares the 5,400-acre site with a unit of the U.S. Coast Guard that performs search-and-rescue missions over waters of the southeastern United States.
Hunter Airfield was named for Major General Frank O' Driscoll Hunter, one of America's World War I aces. The city of Savannah built the facility as a municipal airport in 1940 and turned it over to the army in 1941 as America entered World War II. The army returned the airfield to the city in 1946. The U.S. Air Force took possession in 1949 and turned the base back over to the army in 1967. It is now the site of the Army Flight Training Center. Before and during the Persian Gulf War (1990-91) Hunter Airfield was instrumental in providing aircraft and crew for troop transport overseas.
Pete Daniel, "Going among Strangers: Southern Reactions to World War II," Journal of American History 77 (December 1990): 886-911.
Bruce Schulman, From Cotton Belt to Sunbelt: Federal Policy, Economic Development, and the Transformation of the South, 1938-1980 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).
Craig S. Pascoe, Georgia College and State University
John Rieken, Georgia State University
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