Creek Indian Leaders
Creek Indian society contained an unknown number of leaders in the preremoval era. Each village had civil, religious, and war chiefs of various ranks. Leaders wielded authority only as long as they could persuade others to agree with their decisions. As a result, leadership positions frequently changed hands.
The most important Creek leader was the mico or village chief. In addition to providing domestic leadership
Micos ruled with the assistance of several micalgi or lesser chiefs. They also relied on various advisors. They depended on a heniha to help address many of the daily demands of village life. Respected village elders used their experiences to offer advice to community leaders. Micos also called upon medicine men to cure sickness, converse with spirits, and practice magic. In addition, a tustunnuggee or ranking warrior played prominent roles in times of warfare, while the yahola officiated various rituals, especially administering the black drink.
Kinship ties to prominent leaders helped many Creeks obtain power, and as a result the powerful Wind Clan had a disproportionate number of village leaders. Clan leaders, especially elder women, often prevented micos from controlling the most important decisions within Creek society. Clans organized hunts, distributed lands, arranged marriages, and punished lawbreakers. The village power structure, which reserved positions of leadership for members of each of the resident clans, further limited the power of the mico.
Little is known about most Creek Indians, regardless of rank. Only a few entered the historical record as anything more than a name on a treaty. Names like Cussetaw King or Mico Coweta reveal only residence and position of prominence.
The founding of Georgia increased the opportunities for Creeks to play leadership roles outside of their villages. For example, Tomochichi, who established the Yamacraw village near Savannah around 1730, forged an alliance with General James Oglethorpe. Relying heavily on the assistance of Mary Musgrove, the Creek daughter of a South Carolinian deerskin trader, Tomochichi secured lucrative trade relations for his village. Unlike Brims, Tomochichi failed to use his alliance to stall the expansion of English settlement. Even so, after he moved his village six miles inland in 1736, he maintained diplomatic ties with Oglethorpe and a central role in Creek-Georgia relations.
After Tomochichi's death many local village leaders emerged, including Malatchi and Chigilli from Coweta and One-Handed King and Handsome Fellow from Okfuskee. Village leaders dominated Creek society until the American Revolution (1775-83), when a struggle for tribal leadership occurred. Central to this struggle was Alexander McGillivray, son of a Scottish trader father and a Creek mother. McGillivray, like Brims, used play-off diplomacy to the Creeks' advantage. McGillivray also tried to centralize decision making and to create forms of coercive power within Creek society. Many Creek leaders resisted these reforms, and the struggle over power turned violent in the Red Stick War (1813-14).
Tensions between village independence and national control continued after the Red Stick War. Nowhere did this become more apparent than in the career of William McIntosh. In the 1810s and early 1820s, McIntosh (who, like McGillivray, had a Scottish father and an Indian mother) helped create a centralized police force called "Law Menders," establish written laws, and form a National Council. In 1825, when he negotiated and signed the Treaty of Indian Springs, the reforms came back to haunt him. By signing away all Creek lands in Georgia, McIntosh defied most of the reforms that he had encouraged and the laws that he had helped write. As a result, on April 30, 1825, the Law Menders, with the support of the National Council, set fire to his plantation, Acorn Bluff (or Lockchau Talofau in Creek) in Carroll County, and summarily executed him.
Michael D. Green, The Politics of Indian Removal: Creek Government and Society in Crisis (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982).
Claudio Saunt, A New Order of Things: Property, Power, and the Transformation of the Creek Indians, 1733-1816 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
J. Leitch Wright Jr., Creeks and Seminoles: The Destruction and Regeneration of the Muscogulge People (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986).
Andrew K. Frank, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton
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