The Callaway family has changed the face of Georgia by building and operating textile mills, developing and
Fuller Earle Callaway
Members of the Callaway family have lived in west Georgia since the mid-nineteenth century. Fuller Earle Callaway (1870-1928) was born in Troup County to the Reverend Abner Reeves Callaway and his first wife, Sarah Jane Howard. His mother died when he was eight years old. At age ten, Fuller received a nickel for bringing water to men at a barn raising. The next day, he walked eight miles into LaGrange.
Young Fuller continued to peddle and to farm his own tract of land. His formal education was limited to about a year in public schools in Troup County. At age eighteen, he opened a five-and-ten-cents store with $500 he had saved. He later opened four other stores and entered the wholesale business. In 1895 Callaway invested in LaGrange's first modern textile mill. Dixie Mills opened with local fanfare and New England management; nonetheless, the mill began to struggle financially within a couple of years.
Soon, however, the lure of the industry called again, and townspeople, including Fuller, invested in a new project. Unity Mills (later Kex Plant) shipped its first cotton in 1901. Fuller served as secretary-treasurer of the company, a position he would hold in other mill projects as well. Between 1900 and 1920, Fuller and others opened several mills located within 100 miles of LaGrange.
Fuller also established a variety of businesses, including banks, warehouses, and an insurance company. He held positions in national textile associations, and he was president of the American Cotton Manufacturers Association. He also served as a railroad commissioner of Georgia from 1907 to 1909 and was appointed by U.S. president Woodrow Wilson to the Conference on Industrial Relations in 1919.
Cason Jewell Callaway
During World War I (1917-18) Cason joined the U.S. Navy and worked in the Navy Supply Corps' Bureau of Supplies and Accounts at Navy Headquarters in Washington, D.C. After Cason returned to LaGrange, his father stepped away from active mill management, and Cason began managing the mills. He married Virginia Hollis Hand of Pelham, and the couple had three children, Virginia, Cason Jr., and Howard Hollis (known as "Bo").
Convinced in the 1920s
In 1934 and 1935 Callaway Mills suffered two employee strikes. Eventually management won out and strikers left the area, but the economic stresses of the decade led Cason to retire. He became chairman of the board of
During the 1920s and 1930s, Cason became close friends with Franklin D. Roosevelt, a part-time resident of west Georgia. Roosevelt began visiting Warm Springs in October 1924, while trying to overcome the effects of polio. He and Cason shared a love of the people, a desire to improve the land, and an interest in farming, even though they disagreed on politics. In 1932, the year Roosevelt was elected president of the United States, Cason led fund-raising efforts for Georgia Hall, the new administration building for the Warm Springs Foundation (later the Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation). The foundation
Following his retirement from the mills, Cason set up an experimental farming operation of 40,000 acres at his Blue Springs Farms near Hamilton, just south of LaGrange. He worked with the University of Georgia to develop other showplace farms as part of the One Hundred Georgia Better Farms program, which encouraged better farm practices, between 1944 and 1947. The program encouraged using machinery and developing fine production—whether in beef, wool, or fruits and vegetables. The program officially ended in 1950.
In 1947 Cason had a heart attack. His focus shifted from agriculture to the development of what later became Callaway Gardens, situated on former cotton fields that had been stripped of nutrients by intensive farming. The gardens opened in May 1952. After Cason's death, his son Bo oversaw operations of the gardens for many years.
Fuller Earle Callaway Jr.
In 1948 Fuller Jr. took a ten-year leave from mill management. During those years, he painted, worked with electronics, and assembled a herd of Hereford cattle. He then returned to the helm of Callaway Mills and successfully guided operations until April 1968, when he shocked many by selling Callaway Mills for cash to Roger Milliken and Deering-Milliken Company of Spartanburg, South Carolina.
In 1930 Fuller Jr. married Alice Hinman Hand of Pelham. Fuller and Alice had met years earlier when their siblings, Cason and Virginia, married. Fuller and Alice had two children, Ida and Fuller III. They lived at the Hills and Dales estate of his parents, where Alice worked for decades to preserve the home and gardens. Since Alice's death, the gardens have been renamed Ferrell Gardens at Hills and Dales and are open to the public on a limited basis.
Fuller Jr. helped to found the Institute of Textile Technology in Charlottesville, Virginia, and along with two other alumni, the Georgia Tech Research Institute, which supports research in all areas of the sciences. In 1943 he organized the Callaway Community Foundation (later the Callaway Foundation). The foundation carried on the work of the Textile Benefit Association organized by his father in 1919. The Callaway Foundation owned all assets of Callaway Mills and has made contributions from income to religious, charitable, and educational organizations. More than $275 million from the foundation have has been given to local, state, and national groups since 1943.
Helen Christine Bennett, "The Homely Wisdom of Fuller E. Callaway," American Magazine, October 1920.
Alice Hand Callaway and Forrest Clark Johnson III, Family Gleanings: A Collection of History and Heritage (LaGrange, Ga.: privately printed, 1997).
Arthur B. Edge, Fuller E. Callaway, 1870-1928, Founder of Callaway Mills (New York: Newcomen Society, 1954).
Waights G. Henry Jr., Fuller E. Callaway, Jr.: A Three Dimension Man and Callaway Foundation, Inc. (New York: Newcomen Society, 1979).
Ida Tarbell, "Making American Citizens: And Running Cotton Mills to Pay the Expenses," Red Cross Magazine, August 1920.
Donna Jean Whitley, "Fuller E. Callaway and Textile Mill Development in LaGrange, 1895-1920" (Ph.D. diss., Emory University, 1984).
Kaye Lanning Minchew, Troup County Archives
A project of the Georgia Humanities Council, in partnership with the University of Georgia Press, the University System of Georgia/GALILEO, and the Office of the Governor.