Thomas E. Watson (1856-1922)
Thomas E. Watson is perhaps best known to Georgians today by his imposing statue near the steps of the Georgia capitol.
Family and Education
Born on September 5, 1856, on a plantation in Columbia County (the area today is part of McDuffie County), Edward Thomas Watson (later Thomas Edward Watson) understood the culture of the antebellum South. He was the second of seven children of Ann Eliza Maddox and John Smith Watson, both descendants of Quakers. He grew up on his grandfather's plantation, near the town of Thomson. Watson's primary education consisted of course work at a small school in Thomson. In 1872 he entered Mercer University, but family finances allowed him to stay for only two years. The Watsons lost the family plantation in 1873 in the midst of the general economic collapse of the Reconstruction South. He began reading law while teaching school in Screven County and passed the Georgia bar in 1875. In 1877 he settled into a law practice in Thomson. The following year he married Georgia Durham, and they had three children, John Durham, Agnes, and Louise.
Rise to Prominence
Although Watson quickly became one of the foremost trial lawyers in Georgia, he was drawn to local politics. Early in his legal career Watson had been influenced by many of the leaders of the Confederacy, including his boyhood heroes Robert Toombs and Alexander Stephens. In an era in which northern influences for capitalism over agrarianism were challenging regional traditions, Watson emerged as a voice for the agrarian tradition. He appealed to Georgians as a defender of the old way of life when he was first elected to the state legislature, representing McDuffie County, in 1882. Watson discovered that the support of the black voting population was necessary to win. Once in office he supported the elimination of the state's convict lease system, favored taxes to support public education, and championed the needs of poor farmers and sharecroppers of both races.
Watson did not remain in the legislature for long, however; he chose to resign his seat before the end of the session. His writings indicate that he was dissatisfied with the slow pace of the lawmaking process and resentful of the growing influence of the "New South" as it moved away from the traditional agrarian economy toward more industrial sectors.
The Farmers' Alliance and Populism
As the New South emerged from the chaos of Reconstruction, so did discontent among farmers throughout the region. The Farmers' Alliance organized to voice this resentment,
The Farmers' Alliance itself was not well received by proponents of the New South. Atlanta Constitution managing editor Henry W. Grady and Georgia governor Alfred H. Colquitt opposed much of its platform. Watson presented the platform in terms of an idyllic pastoral country life contrasted with the evils of industrialization and urbanization. As these differences were publicized and his frustration with the indifference of Congress toward his legislative initiatives grew, Watson increasingly distanced himself from the mainstream of the Democratic Party.
In 1891 Watson refused to support the election of fellow Georgian Charles F. Crisp, a far more conservative Democrat than Watson, as Speaker of the House. By then, the Populist, or People's, Party had evolved as the political organization of the Farmers' Alliance, and Watson was nominated as its candidate for the speakership. Although he was widely criticized for abandoning the Democrats, he won a vast new following of farmers in Georgia and across the South. He also earned the support of many rural black voters in his 1892 bid for reelection to Congress through his condemnation of lynching and his protection of a black supporter from a lynch mob in the final days before the election. Nevertheless, he was narrowly defeated by his Democratic opponent, as he would be again in 1894, when there was substantial evidence of election fraud, and thereafter divisions increased between the Democrats and the Populists.
In 1896 the Democratic Party nominated William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska as its presidential candidate, and Arthur Sewall, a banker, as its vice presidential candidate. Some Populists backed Bryan and believed fusing the Populist and Democratic tickets could be successful. Watson balked at fusing the tickets, but delegates to the Populist convention (which Watson did not attend) eventually convinced him to agree to an awkward compromise. In the end Watson, who had been led to believe his name would appear on the ticket instead of Sewall's, was duped by the Democrats. The Republican candidate, William McKinley, won the election, and the Populist Party never recovered from the loss.
Watson temporarily withdrew from politics at this point and resumed his law practice in Thomson. Though he would reemerge to run for president as a Populist in 1904 and 1908, neither he nor the much-diminished party ever posed a serious threat to the Democrats or Republicans. Within Georgia, however, Watson continued to exert considerable political influence. In 1906 he helped Hoke Smith win the race for governor, and thereafter no serious candidate for governor could be considered without his endorsement.
Soon after the turn of the century, Watson turned to writing at his newly acquired Hickory Hill estate on the outskirts of Thomson. He wrote a two-volume history of France (1899), followed by a novel, Bethany: A Story of the Old South (1904), and biographies of Napoleon (1902), Thomas Jefferson (1903), and Andrew Jackson (1912). Through his Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Watson also produced a magazine and a weekly newspaper that achieved widespread circulation throughout the South and in New York. Watson's Jeffersonian Magazine in particular became an outlet for lengthy editorials on anti-capitalistic political philosophies and for strong diatribes reflecting his increasing racial and religious bigotry.
Although Watson had long supported black enfranchisement in Georgia and throughout the South, he changed his stance by 1904. Resentful of Democratic manipulation and exploitation of black voters and strongly opposed to the increased visibility and influence of such leaders as W. E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington, Watson endorsed the disenfranchisement of African American voters, and no longer defined Populism in racially inclusive terms. During his 1908 presidential bid he ran as a white supremacist and launched vehement diatribes in his magazine and newspaper against blacks.
Watson also launched an aggressive campaign against the Catholic Church. He took issue with the hierarchy of the church and railed against abuses by its leaders. He mistrusted the church's foreign missions and its historic political activities. The Catholic Church responded by putting pressure on businesses that advertised in Watson's publications, resulting in an effective boycott. In 1913, during the trial of Leo Frank, Watson's strong attacks on Frank and on the pervasive influence of Jewish and northern interests in the state heavily influenced sentiment against Frank, who was lynched by a mob in 1915.
In 1920 Watson entered his final political race and achieved his first success in more than two decades when he ran for the U.S. Senate, defeating the incumbent senator, Hoke Smith. On September 26, 1922, in the second year of his six-year term, Watson died suddenly. Governor Thomas Hardwick appointed eighty-seven-year-old Rebecca Latimer Felton as a temporary replacement, until Walter F. George was elected to fill out the remainder of Watson's term.
William W. Brewton, The Life of Thomas E. Watson (Atlanta: privately printed, 1926).
Walter J. Brown, J. J. Brown and Thomas E. Watson: Georgia Politics, 1912-1928 (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1988).
Ferald J. Bryan, Henry Grady or Tom Watson? The Rhetorical Struggle for the New South, 1880-1890 (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1994).
William F. Holmes, "Populism and Progressivism, 1890-1920," in A History of Georgia, ed. Kenneth Coleman, 2d ed. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1991).
Barton C. Shaw, The Wool-Hat Boys: Georgia's Populist Party (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1984).
C. Vann Woodward, Tom Watson: Agrarian Rebel (New York: Macmillan, 1938; reprint, New York: Oxford University Press, 1963).
Carol Pierannunzi, Kennesaw State University
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