The first issue of the Cherokee Phoenix was published on February 21, 1828.
In 1829 the name of the Cherokee Phoenix was changed to the Cherokee Phoenix and Indians' Advocate to reflect the expanding scope of the publication. The impending removal of the Cherokees from Georgia was a closely watched issue nationally. As the focus of the newspaper shifted to the removal crisis, the paper's editor began to find himself at odds with the General Council and the anti-removal principal Chief John Ross. In the years following the Indian Removal Act (1830), Boudinot had increasingly supported the voluntary removal of the Cherokees to a territory west of the Mississippi River. The paper was never intended to be a vehicle of free speech but an instrument of the official leadership of the Cherokee Nation, which vehemently opposed Cherokee removal on any terms. In August 1832 Boudinot was forced to resign, and Elijah Hicks, an anti-removal Cherokee, became the editor of the Phoenix.
The Cherokee Phoenix and Indians' Advocate was published weekly until May 1834, when the Cherokee annuity was not paid and the presses came to a stop. In 1835 the Georgia Guard, a militia unit organized to police the Cherokee territory that the state claimed, confiscated the printing press to prevent anti-removal sentiments from being voiced. That same year Elias Boudinot was one of several Cherokees who signed the New Echota Treaty (1835). Under its terms, the Cherokee Nation relinquished all remaining land east of the Mississippi River.
Theda Perdue, ed., Cherokee Editor: The Writings of Elias Boudinot (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996).
Sam G. Riley, "The Cherokee Phoenix: The Short, Unhappy Life of the First American Indian Newspaper," Journalism Quarterly 53 (1976).
Angela F. Pulley, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
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