Melvyn Douglas (1901-1981)
Melvyn Douglas was an Oscar, Emmy, and Tony award–winning actor, whose film career began during the rush for "talkie" performers in the early 1930s. Born in Georgia, Douglas first experienced the spotlight when his parents entered him in baby shows throughout the state.
Melvyn Douglas was born Melvyn Edouard Hesselberg on April 5, 1901, in Macon. His father, Edouard Hesselberg,
After leaving the service in 1919, Douglas joined Shakespearean actor William Owen's acting school in Chicago, Illinois, as a scholarship student. Under Owen's guidance Douglas performed in The Merchant of Venice, Romeo and Juliet, and As You Like It. In 1925 he joined Jessie Bonstelle's theater company in Detroit, Michigan, and at Bonstelle's request changed his name from Hesselberg to Douglas, his maternal grandmother's maiden name. In Detroit Douglas married his first wife, Rosalind Hightower. The couple had a son, Gregory, but divorced soon after. In 1931, while performing in Tonight or Never with David Belasco's theater company, he married his second wife, Helen Gahagan; their marriage lasted forty-nine years and produced two children. That same year Samuel Goldwyn signed Douglas to a contract to perform in the film version of Tonight or Never with Gloria Swanson.
Hollywood and the Army
After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Douglas became a strong supporter of entering World War II (1941-45) and was appointed head of the Office of Civilian Defense Arts Council in February 1942. The office organized artists' talents in support of the war effort. In December of that year Douglas enlisted in the army as a senior recruit and in 1943 was assigned to serve in India, where he entertained troops who were opening supply lines to China. While Douglas was in India, Helen was elected to represent California's Fourteenth Congressional District in the U.S. House of Representatives. Douglas was released from the military in 1945 and continued to work in film until 1949. In 1950 his wife ran for a California senate seat but was defeated, amid accusations of her Communist sympathy, by Richard Nixon. Douglas spent the 1950s away from Hollywood, performing on numerous television programs and in the theater, including the role of Henry Drummond in Inherit the Wind.
A Second Prime
Helen Gahagan Douglas, A Full Life (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1982).
Melvyn Douglas and Tom Arthur, See You at the Movies: The Autobiography of Melvyn Douglas (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1986).
Donnie Summerlin, University of Georgia Libraries
A project of the Georgia Humanities Council, in partnership with the University of Georgia Press, the University System of Georgia/GALILEO, and the Office of the Governor.