Habitat for Humanity International
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The only child of an Alabama sharecropper, Millard Fuller worked odd jobs to put himself through college and law school. As a young lawyer in Montgomery, Alabama, and as part owner of a successful marketing firm, Fuller worked long hours and earned large profits. By 1964 Fuller was a millionaire at age twenty-nine, but his work had taken a toll on his health and marriage. Recognizing that wealth had not brought them happiness, the Fullers resolved to sell their possessions and lead lives of Christian service.
In 1965 Koinonia Farm, an interracial Christian community in rural Sumter County, Georgia. Their afternoon visit became a month-long stay, as they worked alongside Koinonia's residents and forged a close relationship with the farm's founder, Clarence Jordan. Following two years of fundraising for Tougaloo College, a predominantly black school in Mississippi, the Fullers returned to Koinonia in 1968. That year Fuller and Jordan established the Fund for Humanity, a nonprofit organization that financed the construction of adequate housing for people in need. Donations from friends of Koinonia created a revolving fund that covered construction costs and extended no-interest loans to potential homeowners, enabling them to make affordable mortgage payments to the fund. Mortgage payments were then used to finance the construction of more homes. The Fund for Humanity was an important early experiment in "partnership housing" and provided the inspiration for Habitat for Humanity.
In September 1976 the Fullers hosted a brainstorming retreat at Koinonia to discuss how best to fulfill Jordan's vision. Habitat for Humanity was created as a result. Like the Fund for Humanity before it, Habitat would rely on what Fuller called "biblical economics": no-interest loans and no profit, with volunteers working alongside homeowners. As Fuller later recalled in his memoir Love in the Mortar Joints (1980), the next eight years proved to be difficult but productive. During that time the organization achieved institutional and financial stability while undertaking housing projects in San Antonio, Texas; Johns Island, South Carolina; Appalachia; and southwest Georgia.
In 1984 Plains to pay a visit to former U.S. president Jimmy Carter. Carter had earlier made donations to Habitat and delivered a brief speech at a fundraising meeting, but Fuller solicited Carter to do more.
Carter agreed to serve on the organization's board, lend his celebrity to fundraising efforts, and work on a construction crew. In September of that year Carter led a work crew to Manhattan to renovate a six-story tenement with the help of nineteen local families. As Fuller had hoped, the event received national media attention and helped raise Habitat's profile as an international philanthropic organization.
Since his first hands-on experience with Habitat in 1984, Carter has devoted a week out of each year to serve on work crews in this country and abroad. Other public officials and political candidates have followed suit, raising the organization's visibility and enhancing its resources.
In January 2005 Habitat's board of directors dismissed Fuller in the wake of unresolved disputes. Later that year he and his wife founded a new organization, the Fuller Center for Housing. After Fuller's departure, Jonathan Reckford assumed the position of executive director.
In the fall of 2005 Habitat was involved in rebuilding efforts on the Gulf Coast following Hurricane Katrina. The organization's administrative headquarters moved to Atlanta in 2006, while its operational headquarters remained in Americus. In 2006 the organization included more than 2,000 active affiliates in 100 countries and by 2008 had built more than 250,000 houses throughout the world, providing affordable and safe housing to more than 1 million people in more than 3,000 communities.
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