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Augustin Verot

Augustin Verot

Augustin Verot, known as the "Rebel Bishop" for his support of the Confederacy during the Civil War, became bishop of the Diocese of Savannah in 1861 and led the Catholic community through the turbulent years of war and Reconstruction.

Courtesy of Catholic Diocese of Savannah Archives

Slavery & Abolitionism

Slavery & Abolitionism

On January 4, 1861 Augustin Verot delivered a sermon defending the practice of slavery and condemning abolitionism. It was later reprinted as a Confederate tract and circulated throughout the region, earning Verot wide acclaim in southern states.   

Augustin Verot

Augustin Verot

In the aftermath of the Civil War, Augustin Verot called for Catholic bishops to support the construction of schools and churches for freedmen. 

First Congregational Church

First Congregational Church

Members of the First Congregational Church, including the Reverend Henry Hugh Proctor (standing seventh from left), in Atlanta are pictured circa 1899. Today the church is an affiliate of the United Church of Christ, which formed in 1957.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Henry Hugh Proctor

Henry Hugh Proctor

Henry Hugh Proctor, the minister at First Congregational Church in Atlanta from 1894 until 1920, is pictured circa 1900. In 1910 Proctor founded the Atlanta Colored Music Festival Association, which produced annual concerts by classically trained African American performers for nearly a decade.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Young John Allen

Young John Allen

Young John Allen, born in Burke County and raised in Meriwether County, traveled as a Methodist missionary to Shanghai, China, in 1860 and remained there for much of his life. In addition to his ministry, Allen worked as a journalist and founded a college in Shanghai.

Mary Houston Allen and Children

Mary Houston Allen and Children

Mary Houston Allen, the wife of Young John Allen, a Methodist missionary to China, is pictured with her children, circa 1870. Before her marriage, Allen attended Wesleyan College in Macon.

Young John Allen with Writers

Young John Allen with Writers

Young John Allen (center), a Georgia native and Methodist missionary to Shanghai, China, is pictured with two Chinese writers, identified as Tsai and Yin, circa 1900. During his many decades in China, Allen founded the publication (Church News) and translated books.

First African Baptist Church

First African Baptist Church

First African Baptist Church, which was established during the 1770s, played an important part in the Savannah civil rights movement. The stained-glass windows in the current church building, located at 23 Montgomery Street in Savannah, feature prominent Black leaders.

Photograph by Carl Elmore. Courtesy of Savannah Morning News

First African Baptist Church

First African Baptist Church

A museum housing artifacts and church memorabilia dating to the eighteenth century is housed on the grounds of First African Baptist Church in Savannah. One of the oldest Black churches in the nation, First African has occupied its current site on Montgomery Street since 1859.

Photograph by Sarah E. McKee, New Georgia Encyclopedia

First Bryan Baptist Church

First Bryan Baptist Church

This post-Civil War sketch depicts members of Savannah's First Bryan Baptist Church, named after early Baptist minister Andrew Bryan, congregating outside the church building. The church is one of the oldest Black churches in North America.

Photograph by James M. Simms

Joseph Smith

Joseph Smith

Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1830. Adherents of the church, known as Mormons, sent missionaries to Georgia first in the 1840s, and then again after the Civil War (1861-65).

Courtesy of the Church Archives, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Rudger Clawson and Joseph Standing

Rudger Clawson and Joseph Standing

Mormon missionaries Rudger Clawson (left) and Joseph Standing are pictured in 1878. In 1879 Standing was killed by a mob in Whitfield County as he and Clawson were traveling to a church conference in Chattooga County.

Image from Church History Library

Mormon Missionaries

Mormon Missionaries

Mormon missionaries pictured in Rome on October 5, 1886. In 1878 John Morgan (standing, far left) moved the Southern States Mission of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from Nashville, Tennessee, to Rome.

Courtesy of Special Collections Department, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah

A Marvelous Work and a Wonder

A Marvelous Work and a Wonder

The outline for the best-selling book A Marvelous Work and a Wonder (1950) was written in Atlanta by author LeGrand Richards, while he served as president of the Southern States Mission of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The jacket for the 1962 edition of the book is pictured.

Atlanta Georgia Temple

Atlanta Georgia Temple

The Atlanta Georgia Temple, pictured circa 2009 and located in Sandy Springs, was the first Mormon temple erected in the South. Georgia governor George Busbee spoke at the building's groundbreaking in 1981, and the facility was dedicated two years later.

Photograph by Ray Luce

John Morgan

John Morgan

John Morgan, pictured in 1890, arrived in Georgia as a missionary of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1876. Two years later he was given authority over the church's Southern States Mission, headquarterd in Rome.

Courtesy of Special Collections Department, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah

Joseph Standing

Joseph Standing

Joseph Standing was sent as a Mormon missionary to Georgia in 1878. The following year he was killed by a mob in Whitfield County while traveling with fellow missionary Rudger Clawson. A memorial park at the murder site was dedicated to Standing in 1952.

Courtesy of Special Collections Department, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah

Mennonite House

Mennonite House

The Mennonite House, pictured in 1962, was located on Houston Street in Atlanta and served as a residence and headquarters for Mennonites active in the civil rights movement. The house was established by Vincent Harding, a Mennonite minister, and his wife, Rosemarie.

Reprinted by permission of Mennonite Church USA Historical Committee

Montezuma Mennonite Community

Montezuma Mennonite Community

Members of the Mennonite community in Montezuma gather for a picnic at the Beaver Creek Festival in 2005. Mennonites, a pacifist Protestant sect founded in Europe during the sixteenth century, first arrived in Georgia in the twentieth century.

Photograph by Camille Bielby

Yoder Farm

Yoder Farm

Menno L. Yoder's farm in Macon County, pictured circa 1970, is one of the farms comprising the Mennonite community in Montezuma. Mennonites maintain a rural, communal lifestyle, often choosing to limit the use of modern technology, dress, and entertainment.

Photograph from The Amish Mennonites of Macon County, Georgia, by E. S. Yoder

Mennonite Farmer

Mennonite Farmer

Mennonite farmer Lloyd Swartzentruber stands in his corn silo in Montezuma. The Mennonite community in Montezuma, affiliated with the Beachy Amish Mennonite sect, arrived in Georgia from Virginia in 1953 and engage primarily in farming.

Mennonite Teaching Team

Mennonite Teaching Team

An interracial Mennonite Bible school teaching team poses in Atlanta in 1963. These volunteers were part of a project sponsored in Atlanta by the Mennonite Central Commitee, which sent minister Vincent Harding to organize desegregation efforts in the South.

Reprinted by permission of Mennonite Church USA Historical Committee

Hawkinsville Meetinghouse

Hawkinsville Meetinghouse

The meetinghouse built by the first Mennonite community in Georgia is pictured near Hawkinsville in Pulaski County, circa 1981. The community was established in 1912 and lasted until 1914.

Photograph from The Amish Mennonites of Macon County, Georgia, by E. S. Yoder

Montezuma Meetinghouse

Montezuma Meetinghouse

The first meetinghouse used by the Mennonite community in Montezuma is pictured in 1981. The community was established in 1953 and today supports three schools and three churches.

Photograph from The Amish Mennonites of Macon County, Georgia, by E. S. Yoder

William Holmes Borders

William Holmes Borders

The Reverend William Holmes Borders served as pastor of Wheat Street Baptist Church in Atlanta from 1937 to 1988. In the late 1950s he led the Love, Law, and Liberation Movement to desegregate the city's bus system, and in the 1960s he arranged for the construction of a low-income housing project, Wheat Street Gardens.

Courtesy of Wheat Street Baptist Church; Estate of the Reverend William Holmes Borders Sr.

Wheat Street Baptist Church

Wheat Street Baptist Church

Wheat Street Baptist Church, located in the Sweet Auburn district of Atlanta, was founded in 1869. The church building, located at the corner of Auburn Avenue and Yonge Street (later William Holmes Borders Drive), was constructed between 1921 and 1939. William Holmes Borders, a prominent civil rights activist, was pastor of the church from 1937 to 1988.

From The United Negro: His Problems and His Progress: Containing the Addresses and Proceedings the Negro Young People's Christian and Educational Congress, Held August 6-11, 1902, by Irvine Garland Penn and John W. E. Bowen Sr.

Walden and Borders

Walden and Borders

Members of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People gather in February 1957 for civil rights hearings held before the U.S. Senate in Washington, D.C. Prominent leaders from Georgia include A. T. Walden (second row, fourth from left) and the Reverend William Holmes Borders (second row, fifth from left).

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Visual Materials from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records, #LC-USZ62-126520.

Triple L Movement Leaders

Triple L Movement Leaders

Leaders of the movement to desegregate the bus system in Atlanta gather in the office of Rev. William Holmes Borders (seated) at Wheat Street Baptist Church. From left, Rev. R. B. Shorts, Rev. R. Joseph Johnson, Rev. Howard T. Bussey, and Rev. Ray Williams.

Courtesy of Wheat Street Baptist Church; Estate of the Reverend William Holmes Borders Sr.

Zarathushtra

Zarathushtra

The teachings of the prophet Zarathushtra, also known as Zoroaster, form the basis for the ancient monotheistic religion Zoroastrianism. Zarathushtra is thought by most scholars to have lived in what is now Iran sometime between 1500 and 1000 B.C. An active Zoroastrian community has existed in Atlanta since the early 1990s.

Courtesy of Alliance of Religions and Conservation

Faravahar

Faravahar

The faravahar, a prominent motif in Middle Eastern art, functions as a symbol of the Zoroastrian faith. Interpretations of the symbol vary. Zoroastrianism is an ancient religion practiced around the world, with approximately 250 adherents in Georgia as of 2007.

Image from Wikimedia

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New Birth Missionary Baptist Church

New Birth Missionary Baptist Church

The main sanctuary of New Birth Missionary Baptist Church, a megachurch in Atlanta, holds 7,500 people. The use of state-of-the-art technology, including lighting, sound systems, and wide-screen video monitors, is a hallmark of the worship experience in many megachurches.

Courtesy of the Sizemore Group, the Architects

First Baptist Church of Woodstock

First Baptist Church of Woodstock

First Baptist Church of Woodstock is one of the largest megachurches in Georgia, with approximately 16,000 members in 2007. Pictured is the Worship Building (background); Building A (center foreground), which houses the chapel; and Building B (left foreground), which houses classrooms and a gymnasium.

Courtesy of First Baptist Church of Woodstock

Savannah Christian Church Bookstore

Savannah Christian Church Bookstore

Savannah Christian Church, a megachurch in Savannah, operates a bookstore on the church campus. Many megachurches offer a variety of services and facilities to their members, including bookstores, gymnasiums, information centers, and shuttle services.

Courtesy of Savannah Christian Church

Congregation Mickve Israel

Congregation Mickve Israel

Congregation Mickve Israel in Savannah is the oldest Jewish congregation in the South and the third oldest in the United States. The congregation was founded during the establishment of the colony in 1733, and the current temple building was completed in 1878.

Photograph by Mark Kortum 

Judaism

Judaism

The ceiling of the temple for Congregation Beth Jacob in Atlanta features the Star of David, also known as the Magen David, a prominent symbol of Judaism.

Jewish Gravesites

Jewish Gravesites

The Jewish section of Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta is included in a database of cemeteries and burial sites compiled by the Jewish Cemetery Association of Georgia. The association was founded by volunteers at the William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum in Atlanta.

Photograph by Kate Wrightson

David Mayer

David Mayer

During the antebellum period in Atlanta, most Jews supported the Confederacy, including David Mayer. Mayer served as Governor Joseph E. Brown's commissary officer, and later became a founding and longtime member of Atlanta's school board.

Temple Bombing

Temple Bombing

Detectives investigate the damage at the side entrance of the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, commonly known as "the Temple," in Atlanta. The Temple was bombed on October 12, 1958, probably in response to the civil rights activism of the congregation's rabbi, Jacob Rothschild.

Torah Scroll

Torah Scroll

Rabbi Norman Schloss, pictured in 2001, reads the Torah scroll at Congregation Beth Jacob, an Orthodox Jewish synagogue in Atlanta. In 2000 there were 85,900 Jews on record in the Atlanta area, and approximately 93,500 in the state.

Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Synagogue

Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Synagogue

The Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, which first organized in 1860 as the Hebrew Benevolent Society, began construction in 1875 on a synagogue in Atlanta. The Temple, as it came to be known, continues to serve the Jewish community in the city.

Photograph by David 

Temple B’nai Israel

Temple B’nai Israel

Pictured is the sanctuary of Temple B'nai Israel, a Reform Jewish congregation in Albany. The congregation, chartered in 1876, built its first temple in 1882. The current synagogue was dedicated in 1999.

Photograph by Paul Smith. Courtesy of Temple B'nai Israel

Herman Myers

Herman Myers

Herman Myers, a prominent member of the Jewish community in Savannah, was mayor of that city during the 1890s.

Photograph by Wikimedia

Judaism

Judaism

Rabbi Steven Lebow is wearing a robe called a kittel and blowing a shofar, or ram's horn, during a Rosh Hoshanah service at Temple Kol Emeth in east Cobb County, 1998.

Torah

Torah

The Torah scrolls at Temple Beth Jacob, an Orthodox Jewish congregation in Atlanta.

Congregation Mickve Israel

Congregation Mickve Israel

Congregation Mickve Israel, founded in 1733, is the oldest Jewish congregation in the South. The current synagogue, erected in Savannah between 1876 and 1878, is designed in the Gothic style and features a museum documenting the congregation's history.

Photograph by Kelly Caudle, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Ware County Railroad Station

Ware County Railroad Station

Former members of the dissolved Ruskin Commonwealth, a utopian community in Dickson County, Tennessee, arrive at the Ware County railroad station in September 1899 to join the Duke Colony, a cooperative farming community located eight miles southwest of Waycross.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
war002.

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Macedonia Cabin

Macedonia Cabin

A cabin built by members of the Macedonia Cooperative Community during the 1940s is pictured in 1975. The community was founded in Habersham County in 1937 and practiced communal living, spiritual searching, and pacifism.

Photograph by W. Edward Orser

Printing Office

Printing Office

The printing office for the Coming Nation, the newspaper published by the Ruskin Commonwealth in Ware County, also served as a community dining room. A cooperative farm community, the Ruskin Commonwealth was incorporated in 1899 and disbanded in 1902.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
war014.

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Community Playthings

Community Playthings

The workshop for Community Playthings, a toy and furniture business run by members of the Macedonia Cooperative Community, is pictured in 1975. The Macedonia community, located in Habersham County, was founded in 1937 and disbanded in 1957.

Photograph by W. Edward Orser

Liberty Congregational Church

Liberty Congregational Church

Members of the Liberty Congregational Church in Hart County gather for a homecoming photograph, circa 1948. The church was likely established around 1878 by Moses Gordon Fleming and continues to be an active congregation.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
hrt099.

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Center Congregational Church

Center Congregational Church

Center Congregational Church, founded between 1887 and 1894, is located in the Buckhead area of Atlanta. Construction on the current church building, pictured in 2004, began in 1943, and the cornerstone was laid in 1956. The original church structure, built on the same lot, burned down in 1941.

Reprinted by permission of Center Congregational Church Council

Midway Congregational Church

Midway Congregational Church

Midway Congregational Church, located in Liberty County, was founded in 1754 and is one of the oldest Congregational churches in the state. The current building was erected in 1792 to replace the church's first structure, which was burned in 1778 during the Revolutionary War.

Image from Ebyabe

Duncan’s Creek Congregational Church

Duncan’s Creek Congregational Church

Duncan's Creek Congregational Church, pictured in 1955, was built in Gwinnett County in 1889. The Congregational denomination has maintained a presence in Georgia since the eighteenth century.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
gwn094.

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Mulberry CME Church

Mulberry CME Church

Mulberry Christian Methodist Episcopal Church was built in 1873 and offered church services and a school to Black residents of Lincolnton, the seat of Lincoln County. A congregation of approximately 200 members continues to meet in the church.

Courtesy of Lincolnton-Lincoln County Chamber of Commerce

St. Paul CME Church

St. Paul CME Church

St. Paul Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, pictured in 2007, is located in Athens. The Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (CME Church) is a historically Black denomination established in 1870. Originally known as the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, the denomination officially changed its name in 1956.

Photograph by Katie Korth

Lucius Holsey

Lucius Holsey

As bishop of the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, Lucius Holsey oversaw the growth of the denomination in his native state of Georgia. He was also instrumental in the establishment of Paine Institute (later Paine College), which opened in Augusta in 1884.

Photograph by Mathew B. Brady. Courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration

Paine Institute

Paine Institute

Paine Institute (later Paine College) was founded in Augusta by leaders of the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, including Lucius Holsey, in 1884. Haygood Memorial Hall (pictured) is known today as Haygood Holsey Hall and houses administrative offices.

Used with permission of Documenting the American South, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries

Butler Street CME Church

Butler Street CME Church

Butler Street Christian Methodist Episcopal Church was founded in Atlanta in 1882. The current church building was completed in 1920 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. Prominent past members of the church include civil rights attorney Donald Hollowell and boxer Tiger Flowers.

Courtesy of Butler Street Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

Baldowski Cartoon: Ministers’ Manifesto

Baldowski Cartoon: Ministers’ Manifesto

This cartoon, by well-known political cartoonist Clifford "Baldy" Baldowski, refers to the Ministers' Manifesto, a statement issued by the Atlanta Christian Council in 1957 to urge the peaceful integration of public schools. A second manifesto, encouraging racial moderation, was issued in the wake of the Temple bombing in 1958. The cartoon, published in 1960, appeared in the Atlanta Constitution.

Courtesy of Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies, University of Georgia Libraries, Clifford Baldowski Editorial Cartoon Collection.

William B. Hartsfield

William B. Hartsfield

Atlanta mayor William B. Hartsfield speaks about the bombing of "the Temple" in Atlanta on October 13, 1958, the day after a dynamite blast destroyed portions of the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation's synagogue. Hartsfield denounced the act, accusing the bombers of giving "a bad name to the South."

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Reporters gather at Atlanta's city hall on August 30, 1961, the day that the city's schools were officially integrated. The recommendations of the Sibley Commission to the state legislature in 1960 contributed to the desegregation of schools across Georgia.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection.

Louie D. Newton

Louie D. Newton

Louie D. Newton, pictured in 1949 in his office at Druid Hills Baptist Church in Atlanta, was a prominent Baptist preacher, author, editor, radio personality, and denominational leader. A native of Screven County, Newton was the pastor at Druid Hills from 1929 until his retirement in 1968.

Courtesy of Christian Index

Billy Graham

Billy Graham

Renowned evangelist Billy Graham, pictured in 1966, first brought his crusade to Georgia in 1948, when he visited Augusta. He returned to Georgia in 1950, drawing 25,000 people to his crusade at Ponce de Leon Ballpark in Atlanta. Later crusades in Atlanta were held in 1973 and 1994, attracting crowds of approximately 40,000 and 300,000 respectively.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Carter and Graham

Carter and Graham

Billy Graham (fourth from left) attends a prayer breakfast in Atlanta with Georgia governor Jimmy Carter (second from left) in the early 1970s. State representative Dorsey Matthews stands between Carter and Graham.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #ful0088.

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Peachtree Arcade

Peachtree Arcade

Evangelist minister Billy Graham holds a noon prayer meeting at the Peachtree Arcade in Atlanta during his six-week crusade to the city in 1950. The arcade, built in 1916-17, is an example of the Beaux-Arts style of architecture popular during the late Victorian period. It was designed by A. Ten Eyck Brown, a prominent Atlanta architect.

Luther Rice University

Luther Rice University

Williams Hall, on the campus of Luther Rice University in Lithonia, houses administrative and faculty offices, as well as classroom space. Founded in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1962 as Luther Rice Seminary, the university moved to its current campus in 1988 and offers both an undergraduate Bible college and a graduate-level seminary.

Photograph by Russ Sorrow

Viewpoints

Viewpoints

Viewpoints, the historical journal for Georgia Baptists, is published every two years by the Georgia Baptist Historical Society and the Georgia Baptist Historical Commission. First published in 1968, Viewpoints is housed at the Georgia Baptist History Repository in the Jack Tarver Library of Mercer University in Macon.

The Temple Bombing

The Temple Bombing

Damage to the synagogue of the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta, known as "the Temple," is pictured on October 12, 1958, the day that fifty sticks of dynamite destroyed portions of the building, including part of the sanctuary.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Temple Bombing

Temple Bombing

Atlanta mayor William Hartsfield (left) and Jacob Rothschild, rabbi of the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta, examine rubble on October 13, 1958, the day after the bombing of the congregation's synagogue, known as "the Temple."

The Temple Bombing

The Temple Bombing

Atlanta police officials W. K. Perry (left) and I. G. Cowan investigate the synagogue of the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta, which was dynamited on October 12, 1958. The involvement of the Temple's rabbi, Jacob Rothschild, in the civil rights movement may have been the motivation behind the bombing.

Investigation of the Temple Bombing

Investigation of the Temple Bombing

Observers investigate damage to "the Temple," the synagogue of the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta, on October 13, 1958, the day after the building was bombed. Although no one was injured in the blast, damage amounted to $100,000.

Bright and Garland

Bright and Garland

George Bright (left), a suspect in the bombing of the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation's synagogue in Atlanta, stands with his attorney, Reuben Garland, during his January 1959 trial. Much to the dismay of Atlanta's Jewish community, Garland won an acquittal for Bright, the only suspect ever brought to trial.

Jacob Rothschild

Jacob Rothschild

Jacob Rothschild, who served as rabbi for the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta from 1946 to 1973, reads during a Rosh Hashanah service. During his tenure Rothschild was an advocate for civil rights and developed a close friendship with Martin Luther King Jr.

UMC Logo

UMC Logo

The Cross and Flame of the United Methodist Church represent the denomination's relationship to Christ and the Holy Spirit, respectively. The image also symbolizes founder John Wesley's epiphany during a Moravian meeting in 1738, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed."

Reprinted by permission of General Council on Finance and Administration of The United Methodist Church

First United Methodist Church

First United Methodist Church

The First United Methodist Church in Marietta, pictured in 1999, was founded in 1833. The congregation has occupied this building since 1966.

Peachtree Road UMC

Peachtree Road UMC

Peachtree Road United Methodist Church, located in the Buckhead area of Atlanta, was founded in 1925 and moved to its current location in 1942. The church expanded in 1996, adding a children's center and an administrative building.

Arthur Moore

Arthur Moore

Arthur Moore was a prominent Methodist bishop in the Atlanta area from 1940 until his retirement in 1960. Before coming to Atlanta, Moore served as the pastor of churches in Texas and Alabama and, while bishop of the Pacific Coast area, led the Bishops' Crusade in 1937.

Courtesy of Moore Methodist Museum

Uniting Conference Seal

Uniting Conference Seal

The 1968 Uniting Conference, held in Dallas, Texas, joined the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren, a Midwestern denomination, to form the United Methodist Church.

Magnolia Manor

Magnolia Manor

Magnolia Manor's Retirement Center, located in Americus, provides assisted living and medical care to retirees. A ministry of the United Methodist Church, Magnola Manor also operates campuses in several other locations throughout Georgia.

Courtesy of Magnolia Manor, Photograph by Amanda Scullion..

Saint Mark UMC

Saint Mark UMC

A congregation gathers in 1954 at Saint Mark United Methodist Church in Midtown Atlanta. The church was formed in 1872 as the Peachtree Street Mission (or the City Mission) of the First Methodist Church in Atlanta, and by 1875 was known as the Sixth Methodist Church. The congregation adopted its present name in 1902, the same year in which its current church building, designed by W. F. Denny, was constructed.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection.

Epworth by the Sea

Epworth by the Sea

Epworth by the Sea, a Methodist retreat center on St. Simons Island, was established on Gascoigne Bluff above the Frederica River in 1950. The facility is owned and operated by the South Georgia Conference of the United Methodist Church.

Photograph by The Media Bunch

Camp Meeting

Camp Meeting

A hand-colored aquatint by M. Dubourg depicts a Methodist camp meeting held in North America, circa 1819. Camp meetings were a common event during the years of the Second Great Awakening, a series of Protestant revivals held between 1790 and 1830.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

John Wesley

John Wesley

John Wesley, a native of England, served as Anglican rector to the Georgia colony between 1735 and 1737. During this time, Wesley's interactions with Moravian settlers influenced his theological perspective, which eventually led to the formal establishment of the Methodist Church in England in 1784. His teachings also spread throughout the colonies, and the Methodist denomination in America was formalized that same year.

Sardis Methodist Church

Sardis Methodist Church

Sardis Methodist Church, established in a log chapel in 1825, is the oldest church in the Buckhead neighborhood of Atlanta. The current structure was built after 1875, when a tornado destroyed the previous church building.

Courtesy of Susan Barnard

Peachtree Road UMC

Peachtree Road UMC

Peachtree Road United Methodist Church was established in Atlanta in 1925 and moved to its current Buckhead location in 1941. As of 2007 the membership of the church numbered nearly 6,000.

AME Church Bishops

AME Church Bishops

Richard Allen (center), the founder of the African Methodist Episcopal denomination, is depicted with other bishops in an 1876 lithograph. Established in Pennsylvania in 1816, the AME Church arrived in Georgia at the close of the Civil War, as missionaries from the denomination entered the state with Union troops.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

AME Zion Congregation

AME Zion Congregation

Members of the Bush Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church congregation in Barrow County pose at the church on Easter Sunday, 1925. The AME Zion denomination was founded in New York City in 1821 and arrived in the South to minister to freedpeople during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
brw115.

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Andrew College

Andrew College

Old Main Hall on the campus of Andrew College, a two-year institution in Cuthbert. Founded in 1854 as a women's college, today the school offers a liberal arts curriculum to approximately 400 male and female students. Named for Methodist bishop James Osgood Andrew, the school is affiliated with the United Methodist Church.

Image from Rivers Langley

Orphan’s Home

Orphan’s Home

The Orphan's Home, pictured circa 1910, was founded in Norcross in 1871 but moved soon thereafter to its current location in Decatur. Known today as the United Methodist Children's Home, the institution houses around 70 children and provides a variety of social services to approximately 3,000 children each year.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #dek420-85.

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Warren A. Candler Hospital

Warren A. Candler Hospital

Warren A. Candler Hospital, pictured in the early 1960s, was founded as a seaman's hospital in Savannah in 1803 and was acquired by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 1930. The Methodists named the facility in honor of Bishop Warren A. Candler.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ctm134.

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Mars Hill Baptist Church

Mars Hill Baptist Church

Mars Hill Baptist Church, located in Watkinsville, was founded in 1799. Pictured in 2006, the church is affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention, which formed in Augusta in 1845.

Photograph by Kate Howard, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Penfield Campus

Penfield Campus

The remains of the academy building, which burned in 1977, stand on the fomer campus of Mercer Institute (later Mercer University) in Penfield. The school, founded in 1833, moved to Macon in 1871.

Courtesy of Forrest Shropshire

J. H. DeVotie

J. H. DeVotie

J. H. DeVotie was hired as the first professional leader of the Georgia Baptist Convention in 1877. Under his leadership the membership, missions, and finances of the organization began to flourish.

The Christian Index

The Christian Index

The Christian Index, the official newspaper of the Georgia Baptist Convention, has a circulation of around 62,000. This issue, dated Thursday, April 7, 1921, is volume 101, number 14.

Kiokee Baptist Church

Kiokee Baptist Church

Kiokee Baptist Church, located today in Appling, is the oldest Baptist church still active in Georgia. Pictured is the church's third building, which was constructed in 1808 several miles outside Appling in Columbia County.

Courtesy of Jarrett Burch

Kingdom Hall

Kingdom Hall

Jehovah's Witnesses, an indigenous American religious group, hold services in buildings known as "kingdom halls." Pictured is the Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses in Monticello.

Photograph by Benny Hawthorne

Charles Taze Russell

Charles Taze Russell

Charles Taze Russell, pictured in 1917, founded the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, the forerunner of the modern-day Jehovah's Witnesses, in Pennsylvania in 1884. As of 2005 approximately 16,000 Witnesses made Georgia their home.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Historic American Buildings Survey, #HABS GA,107-SPLA,1-1.

Interdenominational Theological Center

Interdenominational Theological Center

A consortium of six institutions, the Interdenominational Theological Center has provided theological training and graduate study to African Americans since 1958.

New Ebenezer

New Ebenezer

German artist Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck drew a map of New Ebenezer during his visit to the settlement in 1736. New Ebenezer, located on the bluffs above the Savannah River, was the second settlement established by the Georgia Salzburgers, a group of Protestants expelled from the Catholic province of Salzburg in 1731.

Illustration by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck

Jerusalem Church

Jerusalem Church

Jerusalem Church was established by the Salzburgers in Ebenezer during the 1730s. Ebenezer, left in ruins after the Revolutionary War, had disappeared by 1855, but Jerusalem Church, now known as Jerusalem Evangelical Lutheran Church, still stands. It is one of the few buildings in Georgia left intact after the Revolutionary War.

Photograph by Bruce Tuten

Early Ebenezer

Early Ebenezer

This sketch of the early Ebenezer settlement was drawn in 1736 by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck. That same year the Salzburger settlement moved to a location closer to the Savannah River, where conditions were better for farming.

Print from Von Reck Archive, Royal Library of Denmark, Copenhagen

German Lutheran Church

German Lutheran Church

The German Lutheran Church in Augusta, pictured in 1895, was one of the many Lutheran churches to spring up around the state during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ric205.

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther

Martin Luther, depicted in an 1882 painting by F. W. Wehle, reads from the pulpit. A German monk, Luther began the Protestant movement in 1517 by rebelling against the authority of the Catholic Church. He was excommunicated by the Catholic Church in 1521 and went on to found "the churches of the Augsburg confession," the precursor to the Lutheran Church.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Luther’s Theses

Luther’s Theses

Legend holds that Martin Luther, the founder of Protestantism and the Lutheran Church, nailed ninety-five theses, or opinions, of dissent to the door of the Catholic church in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Lutheran Church of the Ascension

Lutheran Church of the Ascension

Lutheran Church of the Ascension, pictured circa 1930, was built in Savannah during the 1870s in the Romanesque-Gothic style. Lutheran congregations struggled in the years after the Civil War to retain and attract members, but by the end of the nineteenth century, the denomination experienced a renewed growth in the state.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #ctm157.

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Johann Martin Boltzius

Johann Martin Boltzius

Lutheran minister Johann Martin Boltzius, along with religious refugees from Salzburger, founded the settlement of Ebenezer near Savannah in the early 1730s as a religious utopia. Boltzius hoped to create a successful economic system that was not dependent upon slavery.

George Whitefield

George Whitefield

An engraving of Anglican minister George Whitefield, created in 1774, depicts him preaching at a church in New York. A popular figure of the eighteenth-century Great Awakening in America, Whitefield founded the Bethesda orphanage near Savannah in 1740.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Cornerstone Church of God

Cornerstone Church of God

The Cornerstone Church of God in Athens, pictured in 2006, is one of more than 500 Church of God congregations across the state. A Pentecostal denomination, the Church of God was founded in Tennessee in the late nineteeenth century and has maintained a presence in Georgia since 1903.

Photograph by Kate Howard, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Athens First Assembly of God

Athens First Assembly of God

The Athens First Assembly of God, located in Athens, is one of more than 200 Assemblies of God congregations across the state. A Pentecostal denomination, the Assemblies of God formed in Arkansas in 1914 and began to grow in Georgia, primarily in rural areas, after 1945.

Photograph by Kate Howard, New Georgia Encyclopedia

St. Paul AME Church

St. Paul AME Church

St. Paul AME Church in Macon is one of more than 500 African Methodist Episcopal churches in Georgia today. Pictured is the congregation's second structure, which was located on the site of the present-day Macon Coliseum. In 2006 the church moved into a new building on Shurling Drive.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, # bib234.

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Cultural Center

Cultural Center

The Shrine of the Black Madonna in Atlanta was founded in 1975 as the ninth congregation of the Pan African Orthodox Christian Church. The tradition combines elements of Roman Catholic, charismatic, and African religious rituals, and each church operates a cultural center and bookstore.

Photograph by Darby Carl Sanders, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Cane Ridge Revival

Cane Ridge Revival

The Cane Ridge Revival, held in Kentucky in 1801, was one of the earliest events in the Restoration Movement, a Protestant movement seeking to unify the church after the pattern described in the New Testament. The revival also represents an early example of a camp meeting, a tradition of outdoor services established in the South during the Second Great Awakening, from 1790 to 1830.

DeKalb County Meeting

DeKalb County Meeting

Participants in a camp meeting, held in DeKalb County around 1900, gather for a photograph inside the tabernacle. The first documented camp meeting in Georgia occurred in 1803 on Shoulderbone Creek in Hancock County.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
dek208-85.

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Salem Camp Ground

Salem Camp Ground

The tabernacle, or arbor, at Salem Camp Ground in Newton County, pictured in 1931, is representative of the architectural form that served as the centerpiece of camp meeting grounds throughout the South. Salem Camp Ground, which was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1998, continues to hold annual meetings.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
new192-83.

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Buddha Statue

Buddha Statue

A statue, made around the second century A.D., depicts Siddhartha Gautama, also known as the Buddha. The teachings of Siddhartha in India around the fifth century B.C. form the foundation of modern Buddhism.

World’s Parliament of Religions

World’s Parliament of Religions

The formal arrival of Buddhism in the West took place in 1893 at the World's Parliament of Religions, an interreligious forum held in Chicago, Illinois. Since that time the practice of Buddhism has become more widespread in the United States, and a number of temples and community centers have organized in Georgia.

Image from Wikimedia Commons

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Wat Buddha Bucha

Wat Buddha Bucha

Two initiates prepare to become Buddhist monks during a ceremony at Wat Buddha Bucha, a Thai Theravada temple in Decatur. The temple offers a variety of courses to the public, including meditation and Thai language instruction.

Courtesy of Wat Buddha Bucha

Baptist Minister

Baptist Minister

The Reverend Cameron Alexander delivers a sermon at Antioch Baptist Church in Atlanta in 1994. Organized into three conferences, the Black Baptist church represents the largest African American religious group in the state.

Baptist Deacons

Baptist Deacons

Deacons of the First Colored Church, pictured in 1888, were among the thousands of Blacks to establish independent Baptist churches in the years following emancipation. These early churches grew to serve as spiritual, political, and creative centers of African American culture.

Courtesy of Jack Tarver Library Special Collections, Mercer University

Baptismal Service

Baptismal Service

Forty-eight new adherents are baptized by the Reverend R. W. White in 1913 at New Salem Baptist Church in Wilkes County. The baptism ritual is a significant rite within the Baptist faith, symbolizing the individual's commitment of faith.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
wlk122.

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Baptist Choir

Baptist Choir

The choir of the First African Baptist Church in Bainbridge sings during a worship service in 1976. Music, beginning with the spirituals sung during the years of slavery, has long been an important aspect of the Black Baptist community.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
dec212.

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