Cornelia Bailey (b. 1945)

As a member of the last generation of African Americans born and educated on Sapelo Island, Cornelia Bailey as become one of Georgia's most vocal defenders of her homeland and its African American heritage. Sapelo Island, a barrier island off the southern coast of Georgia, has protected the state's interior for thousands of years. Although the island has withstood countless hurricanes and the arrival of colonial settlers, a new threat has come to the people of Sapelo—the threat of industrial development.
A self-proclaimed "Saltwater Geechee," Cornelia Walker Bailey was born on Sapelo on June 12, 1945, to Hettie Bryant and Hicks Walker. In 2000 she published God, Dr. Buzzard, and the Bolito Man, a cultural memoir that both details Bailey's experiences while growing up on Sapelo Island in the 1940s and 1950s and gives its readers a new perspective on the African American culture that emerged on the island more than 200 years ago. Using childhood stories and family legends passed down over generations, Bailey depicts a way of life that has become threatened by the industrial development that creeps closer and closer to Sapelo.
Bailey traces her lineage back to an African Muslim named Bul-Allah (or Bilali), who worked as the head slavemanager for the island's owner, cotton planter Thomas Spalding. Cornelia Bailey and her family, like many of Sapelo's natives, are direct descendants of West African slaves, many of whom (like Bilali) were Muslim. Over time, the different cultures living on Sapelo Island have blended together and become what Bailey calls the Geechee culture. A combination of Christian and Islamic religious beliefs, the Geechee culture on Sapelo Island has remained virtually unchanged, thanks to the island's geographic isolation.
Bailey returned to Sapelo in 1966 after living with family members on St. Simons Island for some years. As of 2005 she lives on Sapelo with her husband, Julius "Frank" Bailey, and two of her sons. Bailey has become Sapelo's "griot," an African term for the tribal historian who, in Bailey's own words, keeps "the oral history of the tribe, as it [has been] passed down for thousands of years." She and her husband conduct tours of the island and teach others about their community's rich and treasured history.
Bailey continues to fight against the loss of her community's cultural heritage. However, as Sapelo's elders pass on and the island's youth are forced to leave Sapelo for education or work, the Geechee community struggles to maintain its historical identity. The state of Georgia currently owns about 95 percent of Sapelo Island, leaving Bailey and her community confined to a small, private portion of the island known as Hog Hammock. Bailey works to raise awareness of Sapelo's plight by educating those who visit Sapelo Island through public speaking and writing. In May 2004 she received a Governor's Award in the Humanities in recognition of her work on behalf of the African American population of Sapelo Island and the Geechee culture.
close

Loading

Further Reading
Cornelia Bailey, with Christena Bledsoe, God, Dr. Buzzard, and the Bolito Man: A Saltwater Geechee Talks about Life on Sapelo Island (New York: Doubleday, 2000).

William S. McFeely, Sapelo's People: A Long Walk into Freedom (New York: Norton, 1994).
Cite This Article
Bowen, Jesse M. "Cornelia Bailey (b. 1945)." New Georgia Encyclopedia. 03 December 2013. Web. 23 October 2014.
From Our Home Page
Tallulah Falls and Gorge

Located in the mountains of northeast Georgia, Tallulah Falls

Read more...
Georgia Tech Football

With one of college football's dominant programs in the first half of the twentieth century, the Georgia Institute of Techno

Read more...
Georgia Archives

The Georgia Archives, formerly a division of the office of the secretary o

Read more...
The Walking Dead

Set in modern-day Georgia after a zombie apocalypse,The Walking Dead is a comic book and television series.

Read more...
Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries