Jesse Hill

1927-2012

C. B. King

1923-1988

W. W. Law

1923-2002

Benjamin Mays

ca. 1894-1984

Charles McCartney

"Goat Man," 1901-1998

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James and Robert Paschal

James and Robert Paschal

James and Robert Paschal opened Paschal Brothers Soda, a thirty-seat luncheonette at 837 West Hunter Street, in 1947. They are pictured here in 1978.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Paschal’s Restaurant

Paschal’s Restaurant

In 1967 Paschal’s underwent a major expansion with the addition of a six-story, 120-room motel. Paschal’s Motor Hotel was the first Black-owned hotel in Atlanta.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Robert Paschal

Robert Paschal

Robert Paschal prepares the restaurant's famous fried chicken, the recipe for which remains a secret to this day.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

John Lewis at Paschal’s

John Lewis at Paschal’s

Representative John Lewis speaks for Atlanta' Concerned Black Clergy at Paschal's Restaurant in 1988. The relationships that James and Robert Paschal built within the city’s Black community made Paschal’s a central meeting spot during the civil rights movement and helped earn the restaurant its reputation as Atlanta’s “Black City Hall.”

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Maynard Jackson at Paschal’s

Maynard Jackson at Paschal’s

Reverend Joseph E. Lowery (right) and mayoral candidate Maynard Jackson at a 1989 campaign event at Paschal's Motor Hotel. Paschal’s was a hotbed of political activity for Atlanta’s African American community.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Depot Soldiers Support Vietnam

Depot Soldiers Support Vietnam

Soldiers at the Atlanta Army General Depot in 1967 show their support of the troops in Vietnam.

Courtesy of Garrison Public Affairs Office, Fort McPherson

Russell and Johnson

Russell and Johnson

U.S. senator Richard B. Russell Jr. (left) converses with U.S. president Lyndon B. Johnson in 1968. Russell, an early supporter of and mentor to Johnson, criticized the Johnson administration's escalation of the war in Vietnam during the 1960s.

Dean Rusk

Dean Rusk

Dean Rusk served as U.S. secretary of state from 1961 to 1969. During that period of service under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, he was a primary architect of U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War on the side of the South Vietnamese.

Julian Bond

Julian Bond

Pictured in 1966, Julian Bond was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives in 1965, but the legislature refused to seat him because of his outspoken opposition to the Vietnam War. In December 1966 the U.S. Supreme Court declared the actions of the house unconstitutional, and Bond was finally sworn in on January 9, 1967.

UGA Military Building

UGA Military Building

Graffiti left by antiwar protestors marks the military building at the University of Georgia in Athens during the Vietnam War (1964-73). Student activists at UGA attempted to burn down the building five times between 1968 and 1972. The slogan "Che Lives" is a reference to Che Guevara, a leader of the socialist revolution in Cuba and an icon of the American New Left. He was captured and executed in Bolivia in 1967.

Vietnam War Protest

Vietnam War Protest

In 1970 demonstrators in downtown Atlanta protest U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War (1964-73). Most antiwar marches in the city, which took place from the late 1960s to the early 1970s, followed a route down Peachtree Street to Piedmont Park.

Photograph by Carter Tomassi

Calley Court-Martial

Calley Court-Martial

William Calley Jr., depicted here in an artist rendering of his 1971 court-martial, was the only U.S. soldier convincted for his role in the My Lai Massacre.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Sketch by Howard Brodie.

Max Cleland

Max Cleland

In 1968, during the Vietnam War, Max Cleland (far right) was injured in an accident, in which he lost both his legs and his right hand. He was awarded the Silver Star and the Soldier's Medal.

Black and white photograph of Eldrin Bell during a press conference about the Atlanta Youth Murders

Police Press Conference

At a press conference, Assistant Police Chief Eldrin Bell holds up a photo of one of the victims of the Atlanta youth murders. From 1979 through 1981, at least twenty-nine Atlantans between the ages of seven and twenty-seven were abducted and slain.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Black and white photograph of Techwood Homes community "Bat Patrol"

Community Bat Patrol

During the Atlanta youth murders, Techwood Homes community members formed a neighborhood "Bat Patrol." By the time city officials established a formal task force to investigate the killings, eleven young Atlantas had already been added to the list of missing and murdered.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Black and white photograph shows remains of the Gate City Day Nursery after explosion

Gate City Day Nursery

The remains of the Gate City Day Nursery after an explosion on October 29, 1980, that claimed the lives of five people, including four Black children. Though the blast was attributed to an overheated boiler, many community members and observers remained unconvinced that it was an accident.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Maynard Jackson and a Cash Reward

Maynard Jackson and a Cash Reward

From July 1979 through May 1981 the Atlanta child murders took place. With leads in the case dwindling and no arrest in sight, Atlanta mayor Maynard Jackson imposed a 7:00 p.m. curfew on the city's children and offered a $10,000 reward (pictured) for information about the perpetrator of the crimes.

Black and white photograph of Wayne Williams being escorted back to jail

Wayne Williams

Atlanta youth murders suspect Wayne Williams is escorted back to Fulton County Jail after a hearing in 1981. Williams would eventually be convicted of two murders and implicated in virtually all of the others.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Black and white photograph of Howard Moore Jr. seated at desk.

Howard Moore Jr.

Howard Moore Jr., a civil rights attorney from Atlanta, handled a number of precedent-setting cases in the 1960s and 1970s. He is best known for serving as lead counsel on the Angela Davis trial.

Black and white photograph of Howard Moore Jr. seated at desk.

Howard Moore Jr.

Howard Moore Jr. grew up near the Auburn Avenue neighborhood in Atlanta. After attending law school in Boston, he returned to Atlanta and soon developed a reputation as the go-to defense attorney for political activists.

Courtroom sketch of Angela Davis and Howard Moore Jr.

Davis Trial Court Sketch

Howard Moore Jr., depicted here in a court-rendering alongside Angela Davis, relocated to California in 1971 to serve as lead counsel for Davis's trial. The jury found Davis not guilty in June 1972.

Photograph from Bancroft Library, University of California Berkeley

Court sketch of Howard Moore Jr. during the Angela Davis trial

Davis Trial Court Sketch

Noted civil rights attorney Howard Moore Jr., depicted in this courtroom sketch, speaks in defense of his client Angela Davis. Moore served as lead counsel on a number of high-profile cases.

Photograph from Bancroft Library, University of California Berkeley

Rosa Lee Ingram Postcard

Rosa Lee Ingram Postcard

The National Committee to Free the Ingram Family worked to promote public interest in Rosa Lee Ingram's case. Their efforts included this Mother's Day postcard campaign addressed to President Truman.

Image by the National Committee to Free the Ingram Family, Wikimedia

Rosa Lee Ingram and Sons

Rosa Lee Ingram and Sons

Rosa Lee Ingram and two of her adolescent sons were sentenced to death for their role in the death of a white landowner in 1948. Their conviction raised considerable doubt about the integrity of Georgia's judicial system and prompted a nationwide campaign to secure their release from prison.

Photograph from BlackPast.org

Rosa Lee Ingram parole

Rosa lee Ingram Parole

Supporters of Rosa Lee Ingram wait outside the offices of the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles during her 1953 parole hearing. The Ingrams were denied parole several times before their release from prison in 1959.

Photograph by Norma Holt, from the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs and Prints Division, New York Public Library

Calley Court-Martial

Calley Court-Martial

Captain Ernest L. Medina testifies during the 1971 trial of Lieutenant William Calley Jr. The army Peers Commission concluded that Calley's platoon was responsible for roughly one-third of the deaths at My Lai, and Calley was found guilty on twenty-two counts of premeditated murder. . troops killed hundreds of unarmed civilians in a small coastal village inQiang Ngai province, South Vietnam

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Sketch by Howard Brodie.

Disability Day 2016

Disability Day 2016

Crowds gather in Liberty Plaza near the Georgia Capitol for the eighteenth Annual Disability Day on February 18, 2016.

Courtesy of Ryan Johnson

Disability Day 2014

Disability Day 2014

Governor Nathan Deal, with First Lady Sandra Deal, addresses the Disability Day crowd on February 20, 2014. 

Courtesy of Ryan Johnson

Olmstead Litigants

Olmstead Litigants

From left to right:  Sue Jamieson (Atlanta Legal Aid Society) and Olmstead case plaintiffs Elaine Watson and Lois Curtis in 2003.

Photograph used by permission of Institute on Human Development and Disability (UCEDD), College of Family and Consumer Sciences, the University of Georgia

Amy Mallard

Amy Mallard

Amy Mallard (far left) is pictured in January 1949 outside the Toombs County Courthouse, where she testified at the trial of William Howell, one of several men accused of killing her husband in a racially motivated attack. Mallard was accompainied by Joseph Goldwasser, a member of the NAACP in Cleveland, Ohio, along with her son, John Mallard, and her daughter, Doris Byron.

Courtesy of Getty Images, Francis Miller/The LIFE Picture Collection.

Mallard Murder Trial

Mallard Murder Trial

A crowd gathered in the Toombs County Courthouse on January 11, 1949, for the trial of William Howell, a white man accused of killing his Black neighbor Robert Mallard. Mallard's wife, Amy, witnessed the murder and testified at the trial, after she was falsely accused of committing the crime herself.

Courtesy of Getty Images, Francis Miller/The LIFE Picture Collection.

Trustees’ Charter Boundaries, 1732

Trustees’ Charter Boundaries, 1732

King George II granted James Oglethorpe and the Trustees a charter in 1732 to establish the colony of Georgia. This charter provided, among other things, that the new colony would consist of all the land between the headwaters of the Savannah and the Altamaha rivers, with its eastern boundary formed by the Atlantic Ocean and its western boundary by the "south seas," a reference to the Pacific Ocean.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia Colony Boundaries, 1763

Georgia Colony Boundaries, 1763

Georgia's original boundary remained the same from the founding of the colony until 1763, when the French and Indian War ended in a major territorial victory for the British. England, France, and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Georgia took on a new shape as a result of that treaty, with its western boundary becoming the Mississippi River rather than the Pacific Ocean.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Colony of East Florida, 1763

Colony of East Florida, 1763

In 1763 the British divided what had been Spanish Florida into the two new colonies of West Florida and East Florida, with the Apalachicola River serving as the dividing line between them. East Florida was all the land east of the Apalachicola River, with St. Augustine as its capital.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Colony of West Florida, 1763

Colony of West Florida, 1763

In 1763 the British divided what had been Spanish Florida into the two new colonies of West Florida and East Florida, with the Apalachicola River serving as the dividing line between them. West Florida, with Pensacola as its capital, extended west to the Mississippi River.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia State Boundaries, 1783

Georgia State Boundaries, 1783

The 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Revolutionary War (1775-83), fixed the 31st latitude north as the southern boundary of the new United States. The line extended from the Mississippi River eastward to the Chattahoochee River, moved down that river to its junction with the Flint River, and then followed a direct line east to the headwaters of the St. Marys River. 

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Orr-Whitner Line, 1861

Orr-Whitner Line, 1861

The Orr-Whitner line was accepted by Florida in 1861 and Georgia in 1866 as their official boundary, although the outbreak of the Civil War (1861-65) delayed the line's approval by the U.S. Congress until 1872.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Placement of Ellicott’s Rock, 1811

Placement of Ellicott’s Rock, 1811

In 1811 Georgia hired Andrew Ellicott to survey and mark the location of the 35th latitude north, which formed the boundary between Georgia and North Carolina. In an 1812 letter to North Carolina governor William Hawkins, Ellicott states: "In the parallel of 35 degree N. latitude, on the west side of the Chatoga river, a stone is set up marked on the South side (G. lat 35 N.) and on the north side, (N.C.) for North Carolina." This map locates what is currently and erroneously called Ellicott's Rock on the east side of the Chattooga River.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1826

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1826

This map shows the surveyed line as marked by James Camak, which set Georgia's northern boundary line south of the 35th latitude north, including the offset known as Montgomery's Corner.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1802

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1802

Following the 1802 Article of Agreement and Cession, Georgia's new western boundary began with the juncture of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers in southwest Georgia and proceeded north to the great bend of the river (at present-day West Point, Georgia). From there it stretched for 160 miles to the Indian village of Nickajack on the Tennessee River and continued from there up to the 35th latitude north.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Fulton County Voters

Fulton County Voters

Voters in Fulton County line up at the polls in the early 1970s.

Courtesy of Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives, Voter Education Project Organizational Records.

Register and Vote Flyer

Register and Vote Flyer

A flyer produced by the Voter Education Project in the early 1970s refers to the protests in Selma, Alabama, in 1965. The VEP, formed in 1962 as a program of the Southern Regional Council, was a voting rights and voter education organization based in Atlanta for thirty years.

Courtesy of Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives, Voter Education Project Organizational Records.

Register and Vote Flyer

Register and Vote Flyer

A flyer produced by the Voter Education Project in the early 1970s encouraged African Americans to exercise their right to vote. Based in Atlanta, the VEP promoted voter registration and education, and became known as an authoritative source on southern elections in general.

Courtesy of Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives, Voter Education Project Organizational Records.

John Lewis and Julian Bond

John Lewis and Julian Bond

John Lewis (left), who served as executive director of the Voter Education Project from 1971 to 1977, is pictured with Julian Bond in the Mississippi Delta during a Voter Mobilization Tour in 1971.

Fulton County Voter

Fulton County Voter

A voter casts his ballot in Fulton County, circa 1972.

Courtesy of Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives, Voter Education Project Organizational Records.

Jean Childs Young and Rosalynn Carter

Jean Childs Young and Rosalynn Carter

Jean Childs Young (left), pictured with Rosalynn Carter in 1979, was appointed by U.S. president Jimmy Carter as chair of the 1979 International Year of the Child, a program celebrating the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child. The program also worked to raise awareness of children's rights and issues.

Courtesy of Archives Division, Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History, Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System. Photograph by Rick Reinhard

Jean Childs Young

Jean Childs Young

Jean Childs Young, pictured circa 1985, was the wife of Georgia politician and civil rights leader Andrew Young. She was renowned nationally and internationally for her work as an educator and advocate for children's rights.

Courtesy of Archives Division, Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History, Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System

Jean Childs

Jean Childs

In 1953, the year before she married civil rights leader Andrew Young, Jean Childs became the first African American to be elected "May Queen" at Manchester College in Indiana. She graduated from Manchester with a bachelor's degree in elementary education and later earned her master's degree in education from Queens College in New York City.

Courtesy of Archives Division, Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History, Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System

Andrew and Jean Childs Young

Andrew and Jean Childs Young

Jean Childs Young is pictured with her husband, Andrew Young, during his tenure as mayor of Atlanta in the 1980s. During those years, Jean Childs Young founded and chaired the Mayor's Task Force on Public Education and was active in other educational endeavors, including the Georgia Alliance for Public Education.

Courtesy of Archives Division, Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History, Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System

Campaign Flier, 1981

Campaign Flier, 1981

A 1981 flier from the group "Women for Andrew Young," founded by Jean Childs Young, promotes Andrew Young during his campaign to be elected mayor of Atlanta. The group supported Young through four U.S. congressional campaigns, two mayoral campaigns, and one Georgia gubernatorial campaign.

Courtesy of Archives Division, Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History, Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System

Battle of Jonesboro Reenactment

Battle of Jonesboro Reenactment

The Battle of Jonesboro reenactment at Stately Oaks Plantation takes place every second weekend in October.

Courtesy of Clayton County Convention and Visitor's Bureau

Civil War Reenacting

Civil War Reenacting

Reenactors portray a Confederate unit during a reenactment of the Battle of Chickamauga in Walker County in September 1999.

Courtesy of Gordon L. Jones

Civil War Reenacting

Civil War Reenacting

Confederate reenactors crew a half-scale cannon at the Civil War centennial reenactment of the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in June 1964.

From Centennial Commemoration, Battle of Kennesaw Mountain--June 27, 1864-1964: Official Souvenir Program

Civil War Reenacting

Civil War Reenacting

A reenactor portrays a Union soldier in General William T. Sherman's army at an encampment at the Atlanta History Center in 2005.

Courtesy of Gordon L. Jones

Civil War Reenacting

Civil War Reenacting

A woman portrays a local refugee during a reenactment of the Battle of Chickamauga in Walker County in September 1999.

Courtesy of Gordon L. Jones

Parade Queens

Parade Queens

Latina women from the Mexican, El Salvadoran, and Guatemalan communities in Dalton participate in the city's annual Mexican Independence Day parade.

Courtesy of Thomas Deaton

Latino Workers

Latino Workers

Latino workers plant loblolly pine seedlings in 1999 near Bremen, in Haralson County. Latino immigrants came to Georgia in large numbers during the 1980s and 1990s to work in the agriculture, construction, carpet, and poultry processing industries.

Hernando de Soto and Crew

Hernando de Soto and Crew

An 1866 tobacco label depicts Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto and his crew being welcomed ashore by Native Americans. De Soto entered Georgia twice in 1540, encountering the Altamaha, Capachequi, Coosa, Ichisi, Ocute, Patofa, Toa, and Ulibahali chiefdoms during his travels in the area.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Poultry Workers

Poultry Workers

Latinos immigrating to Georgia during the 1980s and 1990s often found work in the poultry industy of north Georgia, particularly in Gainesville and surrounding Hall County.

Courtesy of Carl Weinberg

Centennial Olympic Park

Centennial Olympic Park

Centennial Olympic Park, one of the most enduring legacies of the 1996 Olympic Games, was carved out of a blighted area in downtown Atlanta. The twenty-one-acre swath of greenspace and bricks was closed after the games, redesigned for permanent use, then reopened in 1998. 

Photograph by Wikimedia

Supermercado

Supermercado

Los Compadres, a supermercado (grocery store) located in Athens, is one of many Latino-owned businesses that have opened around the state since the wave of Latino immigration in the 1980s and 1990s.

Photograph by Sarah E. McKee, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Mohawk Spinning Plant

Mohawk Spinning Plant

Miguel Bautista, an immigrant worker at Mohawk's spinning plant in Calhoun, checks one of the spools on a spinning frame.

Mitchell and Students

Mitchell and Students

Erwin Mitchell visits elementary students in 2000 at Roan Street School in Dalton. In 1997 Mitchell founded the Georgia Project, an innovative teacher exchange program that provided training opportunities for Dalton educators working in bilingual classrooms until 2007.Reprinted by permission of Christopher Lancette.

Day of the Dead

Day of the Dead

The mission of the Georgia Folklife Program is to document and preserve the state's rich cultural history through tape-recorded interviews, detailed field notes, and photography. This image depicts a traditional "Day of the Dead" offering, celebrated by Georgia's Mexican immigrants.

Etowah Mounds

Etowah Mounds

The Etowah Mounds in Bartow County include one of the largest Indian mounds in North America. The mounds, constructed during the Mississippian Period, served as platforms for public buildings in a town that occupied the site from around 1100 until the 1600s.

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle, a stone effigy built by Native Americans during the Woodland Period, circa A.D. 200, is located in Putnam County. The structure, made of quartz cobbles, measures 102 feet across the wings.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Indian Projectile Points

Indian Projectile Points

Commonly known as "arrowheads," millions of projectile points have been found throughout Georgia. These projectile points were made by Creek Indians in middle Georgia.

Courtesy of Forestry Images. Photograph by Billy Humphries, Forest Resource Consultants, Inc.

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

A drawing from Lambert A. Wilmer's Life, Travels and Adventures of Ferdinand de Soto, Discoverer of the Mississippi (1859) depicts Hernando de Soto and his men crossing the Chattahoochee River. The accidental introduction of European diseases by explorers destroyed many of the civilizations along the river's banks.

Courtesy of Florida State Archives, Photographic Collection.

Georgia Trustees

Georgia Trustees

This oil painting by William Verelst shows the founders of Georgia, the Georgia Trustees, and a delegation of Georgia Indians in July 1734. One year later the Trustees persuaded the British government to support a ban on slavery in Georgia.

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Button Gwinnett, George Walton, and Lyman Hall were the three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence.

Battle of Kettle Creek

Battle of Kettle Creek

This sketch, likely a small portion of a larger work, depicts the Battle of Kettle Creek, which took place in Wilkes County on February 14, 1779, during the Revolutionary War. The original caption reads: "Engagement between the Whigs and Tories."

Courtesy of Kettle Creek Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution

Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney

The inventor of the cotton gin, Eli Whitney lived in Georgia for just a year, on Catharine Greene's Mulberry Grove plantation near Savannah. After learning of the difficulty planters had with separating seeds from fibers in upland, or "short-staple," cotton, he set out to create a machine that could perform such a task more efficiently. His invention, the cotton gin, revolutionized the southern economy.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College, founded in Macon in 1836, was the first college in the world to grant degrees to women. Pictured is the Candler Alumnae Building, which was originally used as a library. Today the building houses the offices of Alumnae Affairs, Institutional Advancement, and Development.

Courtesy of Wesleyan College

Cherokee Trail of Tears

Cherokee Trail of Tears

In his 1942 painting Cherokee Trail of Tears, Robert Lindneux depicts the forced journey of the Cherokees in 1838 to present-day Oklahoma.

Courtesy of Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

Secession Ordinance

Secession Ordinance

On January 21, 1861, the ordinance of secession was publicly signed in a ceremony by Georgia politicians. Two days earlier, delegates to a convention in Milledgeville voted 208 to 89 for the state to secede from the Union.

Robert Toombs

Robert Toombs

Wilkes County native Robert Toombs, pictured circa 1865, served briefly as the Confederate government's secretary of state and as a brigadier general during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Andersonville Prison

Andersonville Prison

Union prisoners of war are pictured at the Andersonville Prison in Macon County on August 17, 1864. Malnutrition and poor sanitary conditions at the camp led to the deaths of nearly 13,000 of Andersonville's 45,000 prisoners, the highest mortality rate of any Civil War prison.

Courtesy of Civil War Treasures, New-York Historical Society

Freedmen’s Bureau

Freedmen’s Bureau

An 1868 sketch by A. R. Waud illustrates the difficulties faced by the Freedmen's Bureau, caught between white planters on one side (left) and formerly enslaved African Americans on the other (right). The bureau was established in 1865 after Union general William T. Sherman issued his Field Order No. 15, which called for the resettlement of freedpeople on confiscated lands.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Henry W. Grady

Henry W. Grady

With his New South platform, Henry W. Grady advocated unity and trust between the North and South and helped to spur northern investment in Atlanta industries.

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers, pictured in 1910, harvest cotton in Randolph County. Theoretically beneficial to both laborers and landowners, the sharecropping system typically left workers in deep debt to their landlords and creditors from one harvest season to the next.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #ran218-82.

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Thomas E. Watson

Thomas E. Watson

In 1892 Georgia politics was shaken by the arrival of the Populist Party. Led by Thomas E. Watson of McDuffie County, this new party mainly appealed to white farmers, many of whom had been impoverished by debt and low cotton prices in the 1880s and 1890s. The Populists also attempted to win the support of Black farmers away from the Republican Party.

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang! (1932) is a memoir by Robert Elliott Burns detailing his two escapes from the Georgia chain gang. The book describes the brutality and harsh conditions of the Georgia prison system during the 1920s. This book cover is from the 1997 reprint by the University of Georgia Press.

Boll Weevil Dusting

Boll Weevil Dusting

A cotton farmer applies insecticide to combat boll weevils using a mule-drawn duster, circa 1920. The boll weevil devastated Georgia's cotton crops from 1915 into the 1920s. The insect was finally eradicated from the state in the early 1990s.

Courtesy of Agricultural Research Service. Photograph by Rob Flynn

Roosevelts in Atlanta

Roosevelts in Atlanta

U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, visit Atlanta in 1935, during the Great Depression. From left: Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt, U.S. senator Walter F. George, and U.S. senator Richard B. Russell Jr.

Ben Epps

Ben Epps

Georgia aviation pioneer Ben Epps is pictured with his first airplane outside his garage in Athens, 1907.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
clr176-83.

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Fort Benning

Fort Benning

U.S. soldiers, pictured in the spring of 1942, undergo training at Fort Benning in Columbus. During World War II Fort Benning was the largest infantry training post in the world.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Segregation Protest

Segregation Protest

Students protest segregation at the state capitol building in Atlanta on February 1, 1962. The passage of the federal Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965 ended legal segregation across the nation.

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Reporters gather at Atlanta's city hall on August 30, 1961, the day that the city's schools were officially integrated. The recommendations of the Sibley Commission to the state legislature in 1960 contributed to the desegregation of schools across Georgia.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection.

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes, the first Black students to enroll at the University of Georgia, are pictured here at the end of their first day on campus in January 1961.

Albany Movement

Albany Movement

Martin Luther King Jr. (second from right) and Ralph David Abernathy (third from right) pray during their arrest in Albany on July 27, 1962. William G. Anderson, the president of the Albany Movement, asked King and Abernathy to help with efforts to desegregate the city.

Carl Sanders

Carl Sanders

Augusta native Carl Sanders, elected governor of Georgia in 1962, brought the state into compliance with federal civil rights law during his single term in office.

Lester Maddox, 1964

Lester Maddox, 1964

In 1966 Lester Maddox defeated former governor Ellis Arnall in the Democratic gubernatorial primary in a major political upset. Subsequently, as a result of a close race between Maddox and Republican Bo Callaway, the General Assembly chose Maddox as governor.

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

U.S. president Jimmy Carter (right) meets with Hamilton Jordan in the Oval Office of the White House in 1977. Jordan served as Carter's chief of staff from 1977 to 1980.

Olympics Closing Ceremony

Olympics Closing Ceremony

The closing ceremony of the Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta took place on August 4, 1996. During the games around 2 million visitors to Georgia watched more than 10,000 athletes compete in twenty-six different sports. After the games ended, Olympic Stadium was refitted as Turner Field, home of the Atlanta Braves baseball team from 1997-2016, and later redeveloped as Georgia State University's Center Parc Stadium.

Courtesy of International Olympic Committee, Olympic Museum Collections, Photograph by Giulio Locatelli.

Peanut Farming

Peanut Farming

Georgia farmers lead the United States in peanut production, raising approximately 45 percent of the nation's total harvest. Grown in most south Georgia counties, peanuts are the official state crop.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Sonny Perdue

Sonny Perdue

Georgia governor Sonny Perdue speaks in 2005 at the annual Governor's Awards in the Humanities ceremony in Atlanta. Perdue served as governor from 2003 to 2011.

Photograph by Allison Shirreffs

St. Simons Tourists

St. Simons Tourists

Tourists on St. Simons Island gather outside one of the island's many shops. The island suffered an economic depression at the end of the cotton era in the 1830s, but its fortunes reversed with the arrival of the timber industry in the 1870s. Today St. Simons enjoys a strong tourist industry.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia.

Angelo Herndon

Angelo Herndon

Angelo Herndon, an Ohio native and member of the Communist Party, became an international figure upon his arrest in 1932, when he was charged with attempting to incite insurrection while organizing workers in Atlanta. His case moved through the Georgia judicial system and appeared twice before the U.S. Supreme Court, which granted Herndon his freedom in 1937.

From Let Me Live, by Angelo Herndon

Let Me Live

Let Me Live

In 2007 the University of Michigan Press reprinted Angelo Herndon's 1937 memoir, Let Me Live, which chronicles his experiences with the Georgia judicial and penal systems during his incarceration as a Communist insurrectionist from 1932 to 1937.

Don West

Don West

Georgia native and poet Don West briefly headed the Provisional Committee for the Defense of Angelo Herndon, an organization dedicated to exonerating Herndon, who was arrested as a Communist insurrectionist in Atlanta in 1932.

From In a Land of Plenty, by Don West

Let Me Live

Let Me Live

Angelo Herndon, arrested in 1932 as a Communist insurrectionist while organizing workers in Atlanta, spent five years in the Georgia penal system before the U.S. Supreme Court granted his freedom in 1937. Herndon chronicled his experiences in Let Me Live, which was published by Random House in 1937.

Let Me Live Production

Let Me Live Production

A stage adaptation of Angelo Herndon's autobiography Let Me Live, written by playwright OyamO, premiered in 1991 at the Working Theater in New York City. Monte Russell (left) portrays Herndon, with Robert Jason playing fellow inmate Shonuff.

Courtesy of Working Theater. Photograph by Carol Rosegg

Benjamin J. Davis Jr.

Benjamin J. Davis Jr.

Benjamin J. Davis Jr., along with John H. Geer, served as the attorney contracted by the International Labor Defense party to defend Angelo Herndon. Herndon, arrested as a Communist insurrectionist in 1932, was acquitted in 1937.

From Let Me Live, by Angelo Herndon

On the Chain Gang

On the Chain Gang

Radical journalist John Spivak wrote the pamphlet "On the Chain Gang" for International Pamphlets, a series of propaganda tracts published by the Communist Party. Spivak's investigations into Georgia's chain gangs provided the basis for his novel Georgia Nigger (1932), which exposed the system's abuses and contributed to its reform.

Grace Lumpkin

Grace Lumpkin

Grace Lumpkin published four novels in her lifetime. She is best known for her radical novels of the 1930s, To Make My Bread and A Sign for Cain, which address the economic and social turmoil of the Great Depression.

Courtesy of the University of South Carolina

Wallingford Riegger

Wallingford Riegger

The composer Wallingford Riegger is pictured circa 1909 as a student in Berlin, Germany, where he studied the cello and composition for three years. A native of Albany, Riegger was summoned to testify before the Congressional House Committee on Un-American Activities in 1957, but he refused to answer their questions about suspected Communists.

From Wallingford Riegger: Two Essays in Musical Biography, by S. Spackman

Callaway Mills Strike

Callaway Mills Strike

Mill workers went on strike at Callaway Mills in LaGrange during the General Textile Strike of ’34, along with approximately 44,000 others in Georgia.

Courtesy of Troup County Archives

Stetson Kennedy

Stetson Kennedy

Stetson Kennedy, pictured circa 1939 in Miami, Florida, collected oral histories with the Federal Writers Project in Florida from 1937 until 1941. In 1942 Kennedy moved to Atlanta, and during World War II he infiltrated and reported on the activities of the Ku Klux Klan in the city.

Courtesy of Stetson Kennedy. Photograph by Edith Kennedy. Photograph restored by C. Ivy Bigbee

Stetson Kennedy

Stetson Kennedy

Stetson Kennedy, a Florida native, spent more than a year, from 1946 to 1947, undercover in Atlanta infiltrating the Columbians and the Ku Klux Klan. He shared his findings with journalists, law enforcement officials, and radio producers, thereby helping to expose and undermine the efforts of the two organizations.

Reprinted by permission of C. Ivy Bigbee. Photograph by C. Ivy Bigbee

Palmetto Country

Palmetto Country

Originally published in 1942, Palmetto Country by Stetson Kennedy is a compilation of the history and folklore of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida. The book was reissued in 1989 by the University Press of Florida, and again in 2009 by the Florida Historical Society. Pictured is the book cover from the 1989 edition.

The Klan Unmasked

The Klan Unmasked

Stetson Kennedy, who spent 1946-47 infiltrating the Columbians, a neo-Nazi group, and the Ku Klux Klan in Atlanta, published his experiences in 1954 as I Rode with the Ku Klux Klan. The book was reissued in 1990 by the University Press of Florida as The Klan Unmasked.

Claude Sitton

Claude Sitton

Journalist Claude Sitton (right) covers the desegregation of the University of Georgia in 1961 as the southern correspondent for the New York Times.

Claude Sitton

Claude Sitton

Claude Sitton, a renowned civil rights journalist, served as the southern correspondent for the New York Times during the 1950s and 1960s. A winner of the Pulitzer Prize, Sitton was born in Atlanta and raised in Rockdale County.

Courtesy of Claude Sitton

Claude Sitton

Claude Sitton

Journalist Claude Sitton greets students during a reunion of the Emory University Journalism Program in October 2006. A 1949 graduate of Emory, Sitton is best known for his civil rights reporting in the New York Times and for his editorship of the News and Observer in Raleigh, North Carolina.

Courtesy of Emory University Journalism Program

Earl Shinhoster

Earl Shinhoster

Earl Shinhoster, a Savannah native, served in various leadership positions with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People for more than thirty years. His career with the organization began in 1966 when, at the age of sixteen, he was elected president of the Savannah NAACP Youth Council. At the time of his death in 2000, Shinhoster was the NAACP's national director of voter empowerment.

Courtesy of Savannah Tribune

First African Baptist Church

First African Baptist Church

First African Baptist Church, which was established during the 1770s, played an important part in the Savannah civil rights movement. The stained-glass windows in the current church building, located at 23 Montgomery Street in Savannah, feature prominent Black leaders.

Photograph by Carl Elmore. Courtesy of Savannah Morning News

First African Baptist Church

First African Baptist Church

A museum housing artifacts and church memorabilia dating to the eighteenth century is housed on the grounds of First African Baptist Church in Savannah. One of the oldest Black churches in the nation, First African has occupied its current site on Montgomery Street since 1859.

Photograph by Sarah E. McKee, New Georgia Encyclopedia

First Bryan Baptist Church

First Bryan Baptist Church

This post-Civil War sketch depicts members of Savannah's First Bryan Baptist Church, named after early Baptist minister Andrew Bryan, congregating outside the church building. The church is one of the oldest Black churches in North America.

Photograph by James M. Simms

Lemuel Penn Marker

Lemuel Penn Marker

A historical marker on Georgia Highway 172 in Madison County commemorates the murder of Lt. Col. Lemuel Penn by Ku Klux Klan members in 1964.

Atlanta Student Sit-in Movement

Atlanta Student Sit-in Movement

A woman wearing a sign protesting segregated facilities outside of Rich's department store in downtown Atlanta, Georgia. The sign says "Wear Old Clothes with New Dignity. Don't Buy Here"

Courtesy of Atlanta History Center.

Georgia Tech Students

Georgia Tech Students

Students Ford Greene, Lawrence Michael Williams, and Ralph Long Jr. (left to right) integrated the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1961. Georgia Tech was the first institution of higher education in the South to integrate peacefully and without a court order.

William Bootle

William Bootle

William Bootle served as a U.S. District Court judge in Georgia from 1954 to 1981. His rulings upheld decisions made by the U.S. Supreme Court in matters of school desegregation, including the desegregation of the University of Georgia in 1961.

Courtesy of Macon District Court

Horace T. Ward

Horace T. Ward

In 1950 Horace T. Ward became the first African American to challenge the racially discriminatory practices at the University of Georgia. Although Ward's efforts were not successful, his case helped to lay the groundwork for desegregation of the university.

Courtesy of UGA Photographic Services

Georgia State University Quad Entrance

Georgia State University Quad Entrance

In 1956 three Black women filed suit against Georgia State University (then known as the Georgia State College of Business Administration) for being denied admission. Eventually, the college was integrated, along with other University System of Georgia schools. Today GSU, located in Atlanta, is the second-largest university in the state.

Courtesy of Georgia State University

Baldowski Cartoon: UGA Desegregation

Baldowski Cartoon: UGA Desegregation

This cartoon by Clifford "Baldy" Baldowski depicts Frankenstein wearing a University of Georgia shirt labeled "Mob Violence." Published in 1961 in the Atlanta Constitution, the drawing refers to the riots that took place on campus in response to the desegregation of the university.

Courtesy of Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies, University of Georgia Libraries, Clifford Baldowski Editorial Cartoon Collection.

Baldowski Cartoon: UGA Riots

Baldowski Cartoon: UGA Riots

A 1961 cartoon by Clifford "Baldy" Baldowski comments on the riots at the University of Georgia, which occurred in response to the admission of two Black students, Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes. The cartoon depicts Hunter saying, "Jeepers. I don't know if he's the same as he use to be or not!"

Courtesy of Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies, University of Georgia Libraries, Clifford Baldowski Editorial Cartoon Collection.