Georgia Studies: Historical Understandings (Eighth Grade GSE)

Etowah Indian Figures
For full overviews of Georgia's history and culture, see Boundaries of GeorgiaGeorgia History, and Cultural Landscape of Georgia.


Evaluate the impact of European exploration and settlement on American Indians in Georgia.
a. Describe the characteristics of American Indians living in Georgia at the time of European contact; to include culture, food, weapons/tools, and shelter.
b. Explain reasons for European exploration and settlement of North America, with emphasis on the interests of the Spanish and British in the Southeastern area.
c. Evaluate the impact of Spanish contact on American Indians, including the explorations of Hernando de Soto and the establishment of Spanish missions along the barrier islands.


Analyze the colonial period of Georgia's history.
a. Explain the importance of the Charter of 1732, including the reasons for settlement (philanthropy, economics, and defense).
b. Analyze the relationship between James Oglethorpe, Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove in establishing the city of Savannah at Yamacraw Bluff.
c. Evaluate the role of diverse groups (Jews, Salzburgers, Highland Scots, and Malcontents) in settling Georgia during the Trustee Period.
d. Explain the transition of Georgia into a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, alcohol, and government.
e. Give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced and traded in colonial Georgia.


Analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolutionary Era.
a. Explain the causes of the American Revolution as they impacted Georgia; include the French and Indian War, Proclamation of 1763, and the Stamp Act.
b. Interpret the three parts of the Declaration of Independence (preamble, grievances, and declaration) and identify the three Georgia signers of the document.
c. Analyze the significance of the Loyalists and Patriots as a part of Georgia's role in the Revolutionary War; include the Battle of Kettle Creek and Siege of Savannah.
d. Analyze the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and explain how those weaknesses led to the writing of a new federal Constitution.


Explain significant factors that affected westward expansion in Georgia between 1789 and 1840.
a. Explain reasons for the establishment of the University of Georgia, and for the westward movement of Georgia's capitals.
b. Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia; include the headright system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo Land Fraud.
c. Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads, had an impact on Georgia's growth.
d. Describe the role of William McIntosh in the removal of the Creek from Georgia.
e. Analyze how key people (John Ross, John Marshall, and Andew Jackson) and events (Dahlonega Gold Rush and Worcester v. Georgia) led to the removal of the Cherokees from Georgia known as the Trail of Tears.


Analyze the impact of the Civil War on Georgia.
a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states' rights, nullification, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, the Dred Scott case, Abraham Lincoln's election in 1860, and the debate over secession in Georgia.


Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia.
a. Explain the roles of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments in Reconstruction.
b. Explain the key features of the Lincoln, the Johnson, and the Congressional Reconstruction plans.
c. Compare and contrast the goals and outcomes of the Freedmen's Bureau and the Ku Klux Klan.
d. Examine reasons for and effects of the removal of African American or Black legislators from the Georgia General Assembly during Reconstruction.
e. Give examples of goods and services produced during the Reconstruction Era, including the use of sharecropping and tenant farming.


Evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia during the New South Era.
a. Identify the ways individuals, groups, and events attempted to shape the New South; include the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Expositions, and Tom Watson and the Populists.
b. Analyze how rights were denied to African Americans or Blacks through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence, including the 1906 Atlanta Riot.
c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, and Alonzo Herndon in advancement of the rights of African Americans or Blacks in the New South Era.
d. Examine antisemitism and the resistance to racial equality exemplified in the Leo Frank case.


Analyze Georgia's participation in important events that occurred from World War I through the Great Depression.
a. Describe Georgia's contributions to World War I.
b. Explain economic factors that resulted in the Great Depression (e.g., boll weevil and drought).
c. Describe Eugene Talmadge's opposition to the New Deal Programs.
d. Discuss President Roosevelt's ties to Georgia, including his visits to Warm Springs and his impact on the state.
e. Examine the effects of the New Deal in terms of the impact of the Civilian Conservation Corps, Agricultural Adjustment Act, Rural Electrification Administration, and Social Security Administration.


Describe the role of Georgia in WWII.
a. Describe key events leading up to American involvement in World War II; include the Lend-Lease Act and the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
b. Evaluate the purpose and economic impact of Bell Bomber Plant, military bases, and the Savannah and Brunswick shipyards.
c. Explain the economic and military contributions of Richard Russell and Carl Vinson.


Evaluate key post-World War II developments in Georgia.
a. Explain how technology transformed agriculture and created a population shift within the state.
b. Explain how the development of Atlanta under mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen Jr. impacted the state.
c. Describe the relationship between the end of the white primary and the 1946 governor's race.


Evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement.
a. Explain Georgia's response to Brown v. Board of Education including the 1956 flag and the Sibley Commission.
b. Describe the role of individuals (Martin Luther King Jr. and John Lewis), groups (SNCC and SCLC), and events (Albany Movement and March on Washington) in the Civil Rights Movement.
c. Explain the resistance to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, emphasizing the role of Lester Maddox.


Explain the importance of development in Georgia since the late 20th century.
a. Explain how the continued development of Atlanta under mayors Maynard Jackson and Andrew Young impacted the state.
b. Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state senator, governor, president, and past president.
c. Evaluate the short-term and long-term impacts of hosting the 1996 Olympics on Georgia's economic and population growth.
d. Analyze Georgia's role in the national and global economy of the 21st century, with regard to tourism, Savannah port expansion, and the film industry.


Cite This Article
"Georgia Studies: Historical Understandings (Eighth Grade GSE)." New Georgia Encyclopedia. 20 July 2020. Web. 09 July 2021.
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