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Battle of Chickamauga

Battle of Chickamauga

The Battle of Chickamauga, the largest battle fought in Georgia during the Civil War, took place in Walker County on September 18-20, 1863. Confederate troops under Braxton Bragg prevented Union troops under William S. Rosecrans from entering Georgia, but each side sustained heavy casualties; around 16,000 Union and 18,000 Confederate.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Union Soldiers

Union Soldiers

Union general William T. Sherman's troops remove ammunition in wheelbarrows from Fort McAllister (Bryan County) in 1864, following their successful March to the Sea.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Selected Civil War photographs, 1861-1865, #LC-B8171-3503.

Secession Ordinance

Secession Ordinance

On January 21, 1861, the ordinance of secession was publicly signed in a ceremony by Georgia politicians. Two days earlier, delegates to a convention in Milledgeville voted 208 to 89 for the state to secede from the Union.

Fort Pulaski

Fort Pulaski

Fort Pulaski, situated on Cockspur Island at the mouth of the Savannah River, was built in the 1830s and 1840s to defend Savannah. During the Civil War, Union forces captured the fort on April 11, 1862, and controlled it for the remainder of the war.

Photograph by Brooke Novak

Georgia Generals

Georgia Generals

Generals from Georgia who served in Virginia during the Civil War include (left to right, top to bottom): James Longstreet, Howell Cobb, Ambrose R. Wright, A. H. Colquitt, T. R. R. Cobb, Robert Toombs, William D. Smith, Paul J. Semmes, and Alfred Iverson Jr.

Confederate Currency

Confederate Currency

A $100 bill issued by the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. The printing of paper money during the war resulted in massive inflation throughout the South.

Photograph by Wikimedia

African American “Contrabands”

African American “Contrabands”

As Union troops entered the state during the Civil War, enslaved Georgians took the opportunity to escape under their protection. The Union army established "contraband" camps to provide food and shelter for the newly freed African Americans.

Photograph by Wikimedia

Georgia Generals

Georgia Generals

Generals from Georgia who served in Virginia during the Civil War include (left to right, top to bottom): G. T. Anderson, W. T. Wofford, E. L. Thomas, Henry L. Benning, John B. Gordon, George Doles, Edward Willis, Goode Bryan, and William M. Browne.

Capture of Jefferson Davis

Capture of Jefferson Davis

Confederate president Jefferson Davis tried to flee as Union soldiers surrounded his camp in Irwinville on May 10, 1865. He had thrown his wife's raglan, or overcoat, on his shoulders, which led to the persistent rumor that he attempted to flee in women's clothes.

Photograph from Wikimedia

Confederate Earthworks

Confederate Earthworks

From such fortifications as this earthwork in front of Atlanta, Confederate general John B. Hood defended the city from Sherman's attack. Sherman bombarded the city for five weeks, but Hood did not order an evacuation of Atlanta until all rail lines leading into the city had been destroyed.

From Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, by G. N. Barnard

Civil War Soldier

Civil War Soldier

Photo of an unidentified Civil War bugler; buglers were necessary for the telling of time and duties in the camps as well as guiding the actions of troops in battle.

Etowah Mounds

Etowah Mounds

The Etowah Mounds in Bartow County include one of the largest Indian mounds in North America. The mounds, constructed during the Mississippian Period, served as platforms for public buildings in a town that occupied the site from around 1100 until the 1600s.

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle, a stone effigy built by Native Americans during the Woodland Period, circa A.D. 200, is located in Putnam County. The structure, made of quartz cobbles, measures 102 feet across the wings.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Indian Projectile Points

Indian Projectile Points

Commonly known as "arrowheads," millions of projectile points have been found throughout Georgia. These projectile points were made by Creek Indians in middle Georgia.

Courtesy of Forestry Images. Photograph by Billy Humphries, Forest Resource Consultants, Inc.

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

A drawing from Lambert A. Wilmer's Life, Travels and Adventures of Ferdinand de Soto, Discoverer of the Mississippi (1859) depicts Hernando de Soto and his men crossing the Chattahoochee River. The accidental introduction of European diseases by explorers destroyed many of the civilizations along the river's banks.

Courtesy of Florida State Archives, Photographic Collection.

Georgia Trustees

Georgia Trustees

This oil painting by William Verelst shows the founders of Georgia, the Georgia Trustees, and a delegation of Georgia Indians in July 1734. One year later the Trustees persuaded the British government to support a ban on slavery in Georgia.

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Button Gwinnett, George Walton, and Lyman Hall were the three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence.

Battle of Kettle Creek

Battle of Kettle Creek

This sketch, likely a small portion of a larger work, depicts the Battle of Kettle Creek, which took place in Wilkes County on February 14, 1779, during the Revolutionary War. The original caption reads: "Engagement between the Whigs and Tories."

Courtesy of Kettle Creek Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution

Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney

The inventor of the cotton gin, Eli Whitney lived in Georgia for just a year, on Catharine Greene's Mulberry Grove plantation near Savannah. After learning of the difficulty planters had with separating seeds from fibers in upland, or "short-staple," cotton, he set out to create a machine that could perform such a task more efficiently. His invention, the cotton gin, revolutionized the southern economy.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College, founded in Macon in 1836, was the first college in the world to grant degrees to women. Pictured is the Candler Alumnae Building, which was originally used as a library. Today the building houses the offices of Alumnae Affairs, Institutional Advancement, and Development.

Courtesy of Wesleyan College

Cherokee Trail of Tears

Cherokee Trail of Tears

In his 1942 painting Cherokee Trail of Tears, Robert Lindneux depicts the forced journey of the Cherokees in 1838 to present-day Oklahoma.

Courtesy of Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

Robert Toombs

Robert Toombs

Wilkes County native Robert Toombs, pictured circa 1865, served briefly as the Confederate government's secretary of state and as a brigadier general during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Andersonville Prison

Andersonville Prison

Union prisoners of war are pictured at the Andersonville Prison in Macon County on August 17, 1864. Malnutrition and poor sanitary conditions at the camp led to the deaths of nearly 13,000 of Andersonville's 45,000 prisoners, the highest mortality rate of any Civil War prison.

Courtesy of Civil War Treasures, New-York Historical Society

Freedmen’s Bureau

Freedmen’s Bureau

An 1868 sketch by A. R. Waud illustrates the difficulties faced by the Freedmen's Bureau, caught between white planters on one side (left) and formerly enslaved African Americans on the other (right). The bureau was established in 1865 after Union general William T. Sherman issued his Field Order No. 15, which called for the resettlement of freedpeople on confiscated lands.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Henry W. Grady

Henry W. Grady

With his New South platform, Henry W. Grady advocated unity and trust between the North and South and helped to spur northern investment in Atlanta industries.

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers, pictured in 1910, harvest cotton in Randolph County. Theoretically beneficial to both laborers and landowners, the sharecropping system typically left workers in deep debt to their landlords and creditors from one harvest season to the next.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #ran218-82.

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Thomas E. Watson

Thomas E. Watson

In 1892 Georgia politics was shaken by the arrival of the Populist Party. Led by Thomas E. Watson of McDuffie County, this new party mainly appealed to white farmers, many of whom had been impoverished by debt and low cotton prices in the 1880s and 1890s. The Populists also attempted to win the support of Black farmers away from the Republican Party.

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang! (1932) is a memoir by Robert Elliott Burns detailing his two escapes from the Georgia chain gang. The book describes the brutality and harsh conditions of the Georgia prison system during the 1920s. This book cover is from the 1997 reprint by the University of Georgia Press.

Boll Weevil Dusting

Boll Weevil Dusting

A cotton farmer applies insecticide to combat boll weevils using a mule-drawn duster, circa 1920. The boll weevil devastated Georgia's cotton crops from 1915 into the 1920s. The insect was finally eradicated from the state in the early 1990s.

Courtesy of Agricultural Research Service. Photograph by Rob Flynn

Roosevelts in Atlanta

Roosevelts in Atlanta

U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, visit Atlanta in 1935, during the Great Depression. From left: Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt, U.S. senator Walter F. George, and U.S. senator Richard B. Russell Jr.

Ben Epps

Ben Epps

Georgia aviation pioneer Ben Epps is pictured with his first airplane outside his garage in Athens, 1907.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
clr176-83.

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Fort Benning

Fort Benning

U.S. soldiers, pictured in the spring of 1942, undergo training at Fort Benning in Columbus. During World War II Fort Benning was the largest infantry training post in the world.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Segregation Protest

Segregation Protest

Students protest segregation at the state capitol building in Atlanta on February 1, 1962. The passage of the federal Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965 ended legal segregation across the nation.

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Reporters gather at Atlanta's city hall on August 30, 1961, the day that the city's schools were officially integrated. The recommendations of the Sibley Commission to the state legislature in 1960 contributed to the desegregation of schools across Georgia.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection.

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes, the first Black students to enroll at the University of Georgia, are pictured here at the end of their first day on campus in January 1961.

Albany Movement

Albany Movement

Martin Luther King Jr. (second from right) and Ralph David Abernathy (third from right) pray during their arrest in Albany on July 27, 1962. William G. Anderson, the president of the Albany Movement, asked King and Abernathy to help with efforts to desegregate the city.

Carl Sanders

Carl Sanders

Augusta native Carl Sanders, elected governor of Georgia in 1962, brought the state into compliance with federal civil rights law during his single term in office.

Lester Maddox, 1964

Lester Maddox, 1964

In 1966 Lester Maddox defeated former governor Ellis Arnall in the Democratic gubernatorial primary in a major political upset. Subsequently, as a result of a close race between Maddox and Republican Bo Callaway, the General Assembly chose Maddox as governor.

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

U.S. president Jimmy Carter (right) meets with Hamilton Jordan in the Oval Office of the White House in 1977. Jordan served as Carter's chief of staff from 1977 to 1980.

Olympics Closing Ceremony

Olympics Closing Ceremony

The closing ceremony of the Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta took place on August 4, 1996. During the games around 2 million visitors to Georgia watched more than 10,000 athletes compete in twenty-six different sports. After the games ended, Olympic Stadium was refitted as Turner Field, home of the Atlanta Braves baseball team from 1997-2016, and later redeveloped as Georgia State University's Center Parc Stadium.

Courtesy of International Olympic Committee, Olympic Museum Collections, Photograph by Giulio Locatelli.

Peanut Farming

Peanut Farming

Georgia farmers lead the United States in peanut production, raising approximately 45 percent of the nation's total harvest. Grown in most south Georgia counties, peanuts are the official state crop.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Sonny Perdue

Sonny Perdue

Georgia governor Sonny Perdue speaks in 2005 at the annual Governor's Awards in the Humanities ceremony in Atlanta. Perdue served as governor from 2003 to 2011.

Photograph by Allison Shirreffs

Latino Workers

Latino Workers

Latino workers plant loblolly pine seedlings in 1999 near Bremen, in Haralson County. Latino immigrants came to Georgia in large numbers during the 1980s and 1990s to work in the agriculture, construction, carpet, and poultry processing industries.

St. Simons Tourists

St. Simons Tourists

Tourists on St. Simons Island gather outside one of the island's many shops. The island suffered an economic depression at the end of the cotton era in the 1830s, but its fortunes reversed with the arrival of the timber industry in the 1870s. Today St. Simons enjoys a strong tourist industry.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia.

Kolomoki Mounds

Kolomoki Mounds

The Kolomoki Mounds site in Early County is one of the largest prehistoric mound complexes in Georgia and includes at least eight mounds.

Courtesy of Kolomoki Mounds State Historic Park

Effigy Pipe

Effigy Pipe

During the Woodland Period some of the earliest peoples of the area we know today as Georgia developed wood crafts like this tobacco pipe, which reflects the importance of nature to indigenous Woodland cultures.

From Arrowhead and Spear Points in the Prehistoric Southeast: A Guide to Understanding Cultural Artifacts, by L. C. Culberson

Spear Points

Spear Points

Stone projectile tips like these from the Woodland Period are referred to as Coosa points.

From Arrowhead and Spear Points in the Prehistoric Southeast: A Guide to Understanding Cultural Artifacts, by L. C. Culberson

Suwannee Points

Suwannee Points

The Middle Paleoindian subperiod features smaller unfluted lanceolate projectile points such as the Suwannee types, among others.

Courtesy of the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology

Fluted Cumberland Point

Fluted Cumberland Point

The Middle Paleoindian subperiod features fluted or unfluted points with broad blades and constricted handle elements, which may include the Cumberland type. Fluted points (pictured) have a channel or flute running from the base of the point.

Courtesy of the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology

Fluted Dalton Points

Fluted Dalton Points

From the Late Paleoindian subperiod come Dalton and related point types, which are characterized by a lanceolate (lance-shaped) blade outline and a concave base ground on the lateral and basal margins, occasionally well thinned. Blade edges are frequently serrated and beveled.

Courtesy of the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology

Clovis Points

Clovis Points

The Early Paleoindian subperiod is characterized by Clovis and related projectile point forms, relatively large lanceolate (lance-shaped) points with nearly parallel sides, slightly concave bases, and single or multiple basal flutes (channels) that rarely extend more than a third of the way up the body.

Courtesy of the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology

Macon Plateau Fluted Point

Macon Plateau Fluted Point

Only one fluted point was found at Macon Plateau, in spite of a massive excavation effort. The fluted point, missing the forward one-third of its length, was of the Clovis type of these artifacts.

Courtesy of the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology

Etowah Complicated Stamped Pottery

Etowah Complicated Stamped Pottery

This type of pottery originated in northwestern Georgia and is found in small quantities throughout the state. It is from the Middle Mississippian subperiod.

Courtesy of Mark Williams

Natchez Indian Warrior

Natchez Indian Warrior

A Louisiana Natchez warrior of the Mississippian Period is illustrated with typical weapons also used by Georgia Indians.

Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives

Mississippian Earthlodge

Mississippian Earthlodge

Photograph of ceremonial earthlodge which has been reconstructed and is today part of the Ocmulgee National Monument in Macon, Georgia.

Image from Ken Lund

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King Site Map

King Site Map

The King site in Floyd County covers a little more than five acres and is bounded by a defensive ditch and palisade. It was first occupied at some time during the first half of the sixteenth century.

Courtesy of David Hally

Etowah Mounds

Etowah Mounds

The Etowah Mounds, located near Cartersville, are (left to right) Mound C, Mound B, and Mound A. Mound A, a temple mound, is the tallest structure in the area and affords an impressive view of the Etowah River valley. The top of the mound is about an acre in size.

Courtesy of Adam King

Etowah Indian Figures

Etowah Indian Figures

Archaeological excavation, carried out intermittently at the Etowah mound site for more than 100 years, has unearthed artifacts such as these figures, which have provided much information about life in the Mississippian Period.

Photograph from Wikimedia

Hernando de Soto

Hernando de Soto

Hernando de Soto was a Spanish-born explorer and conqueror who landed in present-day Tampa Bay, Florida, in 1539 and came to the Georgia area in 1540. Chroniclers of the expedition described the Coosa River valley in glowing terms.

Sara’s Ridge

Sara’s Ridge

An illustration of what Sara's Ridge probably looked like during the Middle Archaic Period. The woman in the foreground is cooking with soapstone slabs, while hunters carry a deer toward racks where fish are hung over a fire.

From Beneath These Waters, by S. Kane and R. Keeton

Upper Savannah River

Upper Savannah River

Archaeologists excavated a prehistoric Indian village in Rucker's Bottom near the Savannah River about 500 years after the civilization's height.