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Prohibition Parade Float

Prohibition Parade Float

Young women and children ride on a parade float promoting prohibition in Hawkinsville (Pulaski County), circa 1919.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
pul097a.

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Black and white photograph of WTCU parade float in Bainbridge, Georgia

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union

Women's Christian Temperance Movement (WTCU) members participate in the Decatur County centennial parade in Bainbridge, 1923. The WCTU formed its first Georgia chapter in 1880. Largely due to their efforts, Georgia passed a local option law in 1885.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
dec014.

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Black and white photograph of crowd gathered in Valdosta for 1907 prohibition vote

Prohibition Vote

A crowd gathered in front of the Lowndes County courthouse in Valdosta for a prohibition vote in 1907. That year, Georgia became the first state in the South to pass a statewide ban on the production, transportation, and sale of alcohol.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
low104.

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Black and white photograph of crowd celebrating the end of prohibition in Marietta, Georgia, 1935

End of Prohibition

A crowd in Marietta celebrates the end of prohibition. In 1935 the Georgia legislature approved the Alcoholic Beverage Control Act, which called for a statewide referendum on the issue of repeal and tasked the State Revenue Commission with drafting new regulations to govern the sale and distribution of alcohol.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

The duel in which Button Gwinnett was killed by Lachlan McIntosh

Gwinnett McIntosh Duel

This 1777 engraving depicts the fatal duel between Button Gwinnett and Lachlan McIntosh. 

Courtesy of New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division

Button Gwinnett

Button Gwinnett

Button Gwinnett served in Georgia's colonial legislature, in the Second Continental Congress, and as president of Georgia's Revolutionary Council of Safety. He was one of three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence.

Lachlan McIntosh

Lachlan McIntosh

Lachlan McIntosh distinguished himself in a career that evolved over three critical eras in the state's early history, from the colonial period to the Revolutionary War to statehood.

David B. Mitchell

David B. Mitchell

David B. Mitchell served three terms as governor of Georgia early in the nineteenth century. Before his election to the governor's office, he served as mayor as Savannah. Mitchell resigned in 1817 from his third gubernatorial term to accept the post of U.S. Agent to the Creek Indians.

Courtesy of Georgia Capitol Museum, University of Georgia Libraries

Trustees’ Charter Boundaries, 1732

Trustees’ Charter Boundaries, 1732

King George II granted James Oglethorpe and the Trustees a charter in 1732 to establish the colony of Georgia. This charter provided, among other things, that the new colony would consist of all the land between the headwaters of the Savannah and the Altamaha rivers, with its eastern boundary formed by the Atlantic Ocean and its western boundary by the "south seas," a reference to the Pacific Ocean.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia Colony Boundaries, 1763

Georgia Colony Boundaries, 1763

Georgia's original boundary remained the same from the founding of the colony until 1763, when the French and Indian War ended in a major territorial victory for the British. England, France, and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Georgia took on a new shape as a result of that treaty, with its western boundary becoming the Mississippi River rather than the Pacific Ocean.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Colony of East Florida, 1763

Colony of East Florida, 1763

In 1763 the British divided what had been Spanish Florida into the two new colonies of West Florida and East Florida, with the Apalachicola River serving as the dividing line between them. East Florida was all the land east of the Apalachicola River, with St. Augustine as its capital.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Colony of West Florida, 1763

Colony of West Florida, 1763

In 1763 the British divided what had been Spanish Florida into the two new colonies of West Florida and East Florida, with the Apalachicola River serving as the dividing line between them. West Florida, with Pensacola as its capital, extended west to the Mississippi River.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia State Boundaries, 1783

Georgia State Boundaries, 1783

The 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Revolutionary War (1775-83), fixed the 31st latitude north as the southern boundary of the new United States. The line extended from the Mississippi River eastward to the Chattahoochee River, moved down that river to its junction with the Flint River, and then followed a direct line east to the headwaters of the St. Marys River. 

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Orr-Whitner Line, 1861

Orr-Whitner Line, 1861

The Orr-Whitner line was accepted by Florida in 1861 and Georgia in 1866 as their official boundary, although the outbreak of the Civil War (1861-65) delayed the line's approval by the U.S. Congress until 1872.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Placement of Ellicott’s Rock, 1811

Placement of Ellicott’s Rock, 1811

In 1811 Georgia hired Andrew Ellicott to survey and mark the location of the 35th latitude north, which formed the boundary between Georgia and North Carolina. In an 1812 letter to North Carolina governor William Hawkins, Ellicott states: "In the parallel of 35 degree N. latitude, on the west side of the Chatoga river, a stone is set up marked on the South side (G. lat 35 N.) and on the north side, (N.C.) for North Carolina." This map locates what is currently and erroneously called Ellicott's Rock on the east side of the Chattooga River.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1826

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1826

This map shows the surveyed line as marked by James Camak, which set Georgia's northern boundary line south of the 35th latitude north, including the offset known as Montgomery's Corner.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1802

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1802

Following the 1802 Article of Agreement and Cession, Georgia's new western boundary began with the juncture of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers in southwest Georgia and proceeded north to the great bend of the river (at present-day West Point, Georgia). From there it stretched for 160 miles to the Indian village of Nickajack on the Tennessee River and continued from there up to the 35th latitude north.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Etowah Mounds

Etowah Mounds

The Etowah Mounds in Bartow County include one of the largest Indian mounds in North America. The mounds, constructed during the Mississippian Period, served as platforms for public buildings in a town that occupied the site from around 1100 until the 1600s.

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle, a stone effigy built by Native Americans during the Woodland Period, circa A.D. 200, is located in Putnam County. The structure, made of quartz cobbles, measures 102 feet across the wings.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Indian Projectile Points

Indian Projectile Points

Commonly known as "arrowheads," millions of projectile points have been found throughout Georgia. These projectile points were made by Creek Indians in middle Georgia.

Courtesy of Forestry Images. Photograph by Billy Humphries, Forest Resource Consultants, Inc.

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

A drawing from Lambert A. Wilmer's Life, Travels and Adventures of Ferdinand de Soto, Discoverer of the Mississippi (1859) depicts Hernando de Soto and his men crossing the Chattahoochee River. The accidental introduction of European diseases by explorers destroyed many of the civilizations along the river's banks.

Courtesy of Florida State Archives, Photographic Collection.

Georgia Trustees

Georgia Trustees

This oil painting by William Verelst shows the founders of Georgia, the Georgia Trustees, and a delegation of Georgia Indians in July 1734. One year later the Trustees persuaded the British government to support a ban on slavery in Georgia.

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Button Gwinnett, George Walton, and Lyman Hall were the three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence.

Battle of Kettle Creek

Battle of Kettle Creek

This sketch, likely a small portion of a larger work, depicts the Battle of Kettle Creek, which took place in Wilkes County on February 14, 1779, during the Revolutionary War. The original caption reads: "Engagement between the Whigs and Tories."

Courtesy of Kettle Creek Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution

Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney

The inventor of the cotton gin, Eli Whitney lived in Georgia for just a year, on Catharine Greene's Mulberry Grove plantation near Savannah. After learning of the difficulty planters had with separating seeds from fibers in upland, or "short-staple," cotton, he set out to create a machine that could perform such a task more efficiently. His invention, the cotton gin, revolutionized the southern economy.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College, founded in Macon in 1836, was the first college in the world to grant degrees to women. Pictured is the Candler Alumnae Building, which was originally used as a library. Today the building houses the offices of Alumnae Affairs, Institutional Advancement, and Development.

Courtesy of Wesleyan College

Cherokee Trail of Tears

Cherokee Trail of Tears

In his 1942 painting Cherokee Trail of Tears, Robert Lindneux depicts the forced journey of the Cherokees in 1838 to present-day Oklahoma.

Courtesy of Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

Secession Ordinance

Secession Ordinance

On January 21, 1861, the ordinance of secession was publicly signed in a ceremony by Georgia politicians. Two days earlier, delegates to a convention in Milledgeville voted 208 to 89 for the state to secede from the Union.

Robert Toombs

Robert Toombs

Wilkes County native Robert Toombs, pictured circa 1865, served briefly as the Confederate government's secretary of state and as a brigadier general during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Andersonville Prison

Andersonville Prison

Union prisoners of war are pictured at the Andersonville Prison in Macon County on August 17, 1864. Malnutrition and poor sanitary conditions at the camp led to the deaths of nearly 13,000 of Andersonville's 45,000 prisoners, the highest mortality rate of any Civil War prison.

Courtesy of Civil War Treasures, New-York Historical Society

Freedmen’s Bureau

Freedmen’s Bureau

An 1868 sketch by A. R. Waud illustrates the difficulties faced by the Freedmen's Bureau, caught between white planters on one side (left) and formerly enslaved African Americans on the other (right). The bureau was established in 1865 after Union general William T. Sherman issued his Field Order No. 15, which called for the resettlement of freedpeople on confiscated lands.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Henry W. Grady

Henry W. Grady

With his New South platform, Henry W. Grady advocated unity and trust between the North and South and helped to spur northern investment in Atlanta industries.

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers, pictured in 1910, harvest cotton in Randolph County. Theoretically beneficial to both laborers and landowners, the sharecropping system typically left workers in deep debt to their landlords and creditors from one harvest season to the next.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #ran218-82.

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Thomas E. Watson

Thomas E. Watson

In 1892 Georgia politics was shaken by the arrival of the Populist Party. Led by Thomas E. Watson of McDuffie County, this new party mainly appealed to white farmers, many of whom had been impoverished by debt and low cotton prices in the 1880s and 1890s. The Populists also attempted to win the support of Black farmers away from the Republican Party.

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang! (1932) is a memoir by Robert Elliott Burns detailing his two escapes from the Georgia chain gang. The book describes the brutality and harsh conditions of the Georgia prison system during the 1920s. This book cover is from the 1997 reprint by the University of Georgia Press.

Boll Weevil Dusting

Boll Weevil Dusting

A cotton farmer applies insecticide to combat boll weevils using a mule-drawn duster, circa 1920. The boll weevil devastated Georgia's cotton crops from 1915 into the 1920s. The insect was finally eradicated from the state in the early 1990s.

Courtesy of Agricultural Research Service. Photograph by Rob Flynn

Roosevelts in Atlanta

Roosevelts in Atlanta

U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, visit Atlanta in 1935, during the Great Depression. From left: Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt, U.S. senator Walter F. George, and U.S. senator Richard B. Russell Jr.

Ben Epps

Ben Epps

Georgia aviation pioneer Ben Epps is pictured with his first airplane outside his garage in Athens, 1907.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
clr176-83.

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Fort Benning

Fort Benning

U.S. soldiers, pictured in the spring of 1942, undergo training at Fort Benning in Columbus. During World War II Fort Benning was the largest infantry training post in the world.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Segregation Protest

Segregation Protest

Students protest segregation at the state capitol building in Atlanta on February 1, 1962. The passage of the federal Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965 ended legal segregation across the nation.

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Reporters gather at Atlanta's city hall on August 30, 1961, the day that the city's schools were officially integrated. The recommendations of the Sibley Commission to the state legislature in 1960 contributed to the desegregation of schools across Georgia.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection.

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes, the first Black students to enroll at the University of Georgia, are pictured here at the end of their first day on campus in January 1961.

Albany Movement

Albany Movement

Martin Luther King Jr. (second from right) and Ralph David Abernathy (third from right) pray during their arrest in Albany on July 27, 1962. William G. Anderson, the president of the Albany Movement, asked King and Abernathy to help with efforts to desegregate the city.

Carl Sanders

Carl Sanders

Augusta native Carl Sanders, elected governor of Georgia in 1962, brought the state into compliance with federal civil rights law during his single term in office.

Lester Maddox, 1964

Lester Maddox, 1964

In 1966 Lester Maddox defeated former governor Ellis Arnall in the Democratic gubernatorial primary in a major political upset. Subsequently, as a result of a close race between Maddox and Republican Bo Callaway, the General Assembly chose Maddox as governor.

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

U.S. president Jimmy Carter (right) meets with Hamilton Jordan in the Oval Office of the White House in 1977. Jordan served as Carter's chief of staff from 1977 to 1980.

Olympics Closing Ceremony

Olympics Closing Ceremony

The closing ceremony of the Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta took place on August 4, 1996. During the games around 2 million visitors to Georgia watched more than 10,000 athletes compete in twenty-six different sports. After the games ended, Olympic Stadium was refitted as Turner Field, home of the Atlanta Braves baseball team from 1997-2016, and later redeveloped as Georgia State University's Center Parc Stadium.

Courtesy of International Olympic Committee, Olympic Museum Collections, Photograph by Giulio Locatelli.

Peanut Farming

Peanut Farming

Georgia farmers lead the United States in peanut production, raising approximately 45 percent of the nation's total harvest. Grown in most south Georgia counties, peanuts are the official state crop.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Sonny Perdue

Sonny Perdue

Georgia governor Sonny Perdue speaks in 2005 at the annual Governor's Awards in the Humanities ceremony in Atlanta. Perdue served as governor from 2003 to 2011.

Photograph by Allison Shirreffs

Latino Workers

Latino Workers

Latino workers plant loblolly pine seedlings in 1999 near Bremen, in Haralson County. Latino immigrants came to Georgia in large numbers during the 1980s and 1990s to work in the agriculture, construction, carpet, and poultry processing industries.

St. Simons Tourists

St. Simons Tourists

Tourists on St. Simons Island gather outside one of the island's many shops. The island suffered an economic depression at the end of the cotton era in the 1830s, but its fortunes reversed with the arrival of the timber industry in the 1870s. Today St. Simons enjoys a strong tourist industry.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia.

Sheftall Sheftall

Sheftall Sheftall

Sheftall Sheftall was the eldest son of Mordecai Sheftall, a successful Savannah merchant, shipper, and statesman. In 1777, during the Revolutionary War, Mordecai became a colonel, and he named Sheftall as his assistant. The following year both men were taken as prisoners by the British and held in the Caribbean for two years before being released.

Congregation Mickve Israel

Congregation Mickve Israel

Congregation Mickve Israel in Savannah is the oldest Jewish congregation in the South and the third oldest in the United States. The congregation was founded during the establishment of the colony in 1733, and the current temple building was completed in 1878.

Photograph by Mark Kortum 

Indigo

Indigo

An indigo plant (Indigofera suffruticosa) grows wild on Ossabaw Island. Indigo was cultivated by colonial Georgians, and along with rice, was a lucrative crop until cotton surpassed it in the early 1800s.

Photograph by James Bitler

William McIntosh

William McIntosh

Charles Bird King's portrait of William McIntosh (ca. 1825). In 1825 McIntosh negotiated and signed the Treaty of Indian Springs, signing away all Creek lands in Georgia and thereby defying most of the reforms that he had encouraged and the laws that he had helped write.

Image from Archives and Rare Books Library, University of Cincinnati Libraries, McKenney and Hall: History of the Indian Tribes Collection.

Murder of William McIntosh

Murder of William McIntosh

In 1825 cousins William McIntosh, a Creek leader, and George Troup, the governor of Georgia, signed the Treaty of Indian Springs, which authorized the sale of Creek lands in the state to the federal government. McIntosh was murdered shortly thereafter by angry members of the Creek Nation.

From A History of Georgia for Use in Schools, by L. B. Evans

McIntosh Inn

McIntosh Inn

The McIntosh Inn, built in 1823 at Indian Springs in Butts County by Creek leader William McIntosh, thrived as a popular resort until the 1930s. In 1825 McIntosh signed the Treaty of Indian Springs with the U.S. government at the hotel; he was murdered three months later by angry Creeks who considered the agreement a betrayal.

Photograph by Melinda Smith Mullikin, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Historical Marker, McIntosh Inn

Historical Marker, McIntosh Inn

The marker reads: "Here on February 12, 1825, William McIntosh, a friendly chief of the Creek Indians, signed the Treaty by which all lands west of the Flint River were ceded to the State of Georgia. For this, he was murdered by a band of Creeks who were opposed to the treaty. This tablet is placed by The Piedmont Continental Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution A.D. 1911."

Photograph by Melinda Smith Mullikin, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Beaulieu Plantation

Beaulieu Plantation

This tree-lined drive marks the entrance to Beaulieu Plantation, the estate of William Stephens, who came to Savannah in 1737 to serve as secretary of Trustee Georgia. Beaulieu was one of the leading river plantations, and Stephens experimented with grape and cotton cultivation.

Photograph by Carol Ebel

New Ebenezer

New Ebenezer

German artist Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck drew a map of New Ebenezer during his visit to the settlement in 1736. New Ebenezer, located on the bluffs above the Savannah River, was the second settlement established by the Georgia Salzburgers, a group of Protestants expelled from the Catholic province of Salzburg in 1731.

Illustration by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck

Jerusalem Church

Jerusalem Church

Jerusalem Church was established by the Salzburgers in Ebenezer during the 1730s. Ebenezer, left in ruins after the Revolutionary War, had disappeared by 1855, but Jerusalem Church, now known as Jerusalem Evangelical Lutheran Church, still stands. It is one of the few buildings in Georgia left intact after the Revolutionary War.

Photograph by Bruce Tuten

Early Ebenezer

Early Ebenezer

This sketch of the early Ebenezer settlement was drawn in 1736 by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck. That same year the Salzburger settlement moved to a location closer to the Savannah River, where conditions were better for farming.

Print from Von Reck Archive, Royal Library of Denmark, Copenhagen

Seal of the Trustees

Seal of the Trustees

One face of the 1733 seal of the Georgia Trustees features two figures resting upon urns. They represent the Savannah and Altamaha rivers, which formed the northwestern and southeastern boundaries of the province. The genius of the colony is seated beside a cornucopia, with a cap of liberty on her head and a spear in one hand. The abbreviated Latin phrase Colonia Georgia Aug means "May the colony of Georgia prosper."

Johann Martin Boltzius

Johann Martin Boltzius

Lutheran minister Johann Martin Boltzius, along with religious refugees from Salzburger, founded the settlement of Ebenezer near Savannah in the early 1730s as a religious utopia. Boltzius hoped to create a successful economic system that was not dependent upon slavery.

George Whitefield

George Whitefield

An engraving of Anglican minister George Whitefield, created in 1774, depicts him preaching at a church in New York. A popular figure of the eighteenth-century Great Awakening in America, Whitefield founded the Bethesda orphanage near Savannah in 1740.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Benjamin Hawkins

Benjamin Hawkins

Benjamin Hawkins, a North Carolina native, served as the "Principal Temporary Agent for Indian Affairs South of the Ohio River" from 1796 until his death in 1816. Hawkins established the Creek Agency Reserve along the Flint River in present-day Crawford County, Georgia, where he lived with his wife and children. A skilled and fair diplomat, Hawkins encouraged Indians in his jurisdiction to adopt the U.S. government's "plan for civilization" as their best option for survival.

Fort Benjamin Hawkins

Fort Benjamin Hawkins

Indian Superintendent Benjamin Hawkins personally selected the location of Fort Benjamin Hawkins, which was built to protect settlers from the Creeks. Despite Hawkins's fear that the Creeks would attack the settlement, no problems arose during the fifteen years that the fort was used as an outpost. Fort Hawkins was later used as a supply hub during the War of 1812.

Yamacraw Territory

Yamacraw Territory

A map of Georgia, circa 1745, shows the territory inhabited by the Yamacraw Indians, a group formed in 1728 by disaffected Creek and Yamasee Indians. The Yamacraws, led by Tomochichi, established their first community on the bluffs of the Savannah River. After the arrival of James Oglethorpe in 1733, the group agreed to move north to accomodate Oglethorpe's plans to build an outpost, which later became the city of Savannah.

From History of Georgia, by C. Howell

Tomochichi

Tomochichi

As the principal mediator between the native population and the new English settlers during the first years of Georgia's settlement, Tomochichi (left) contributed much to the establishment of peaceful relations between the two groups and to the ultimate success of Georgia. His nephew, Toonahowi, is seated on the right in this engraving, circa 1734-35, by John Faber Jr.

Olaudah Equiano

Olaudah Equiano

Olaudah Equiano published one of the earliest known slave narratives, The Interesting Narrative, in London in 1789. The work chronicles his years of enslavement, which he spent sailing trade ships both at sea and along the Savannah River. Equiano purchased his freedom in 1766 and traveled widely thereafter.

From The Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, by O. Equiano

The Nancy

The Nancy

Olaudah Equiano relates his many adventures aboard the trading ship in his slave narrative, The Interesting Narrative (1789). During his years in slavery, Equiano sailed ships for his enslaver between the Caribbean islands and Savannah as part of the Atlantic slave trade.

From The Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, by O. Equiano

Oglethorpe with Creek Indians

Oglethorpe with Creek Indians

The Creek Indians meet with James Oglethorpe. By the time Oglethorpe and his Georgia colonists arrived in 1733, relations between the Creeks and the English were already well established and centered mainly on trade.

Colonial Women on Farm

Colonial Women on Farm

This ink-and-wash drawing by Porte Crayon of colonial women on a farm comes from his book The Old South Illustrated. The scarcity of women in the Georgia colony resulted in the frequent intermarriage between settlers of different ethnicities.

From The Old South Illustrated, by P. Crayon

Slave Hold

Slave Hold

Africans captured to be sold into slavery crossed the Atlantic Ocean lying pressed together in crowded ships' holds. The city of Savannah served as a major port for the Atlantic slave trade from 1750, when the Georgia colony repealed its ban on slavery, until 1798, when the state outlawed the importation of enslaved people.

From The History of Rise, Progress & Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-trade by the British Parliament, by Thomas Clarkson

Quaker Meetinghouse

Quaker Meetinghouse

A replica of the original Quaker meetinghouse stands in Wrightsborough, which was founded in 1768 as a Quaker community in present-day McDuffie County. Opposed to slavery and therefore unable to compete in Georgia's economy, the Quakers, or Religious Society of Friends, began to leave the area during the late eighteenth century.

Courtesy of Sarah Shaw

Water Tower

Water Tower

The water tower at Old Town Plantation is located approximately eight miles southeast of Louisville in Jefferson County. The plantation was established as a trading post around 1770 by Georgia Galphin, an Indian commissioner, on the site of an ancient Creek town.

Courtesy of Forrest Shropshire

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe founded the colony of Georgia in 1733 and built Fort Frederica, which became the center of colonial frontier defense, on St. Simons Island in 1736. Oglethorpe also recruited men from along the colonial milita to form the Rangers, a full-time military force.

Sixtieth Regiment of Foot

Sixtieth Regiment of Foot

Three companies of the British Sixtieth Regiment of Foot were sent to the Georgia colony in 1763 by King George III to strengthen the defense of colonial garrisons against attack by the French and Spanish.

Courtesy of The Company of Military Historians

Colonial Military

Colonial Military

During Georgia's colonial period, from 1733 to 1776, British militia forces defended the colony from encroaching French and Spanish settlers, as well as from attacks by the Choctaws, Creeks, and Cherokees.

Print by Jean Schucker

James Wright

James Wright

James Wright replaced Henry Ellis as royal governor of Georgia in 1760 and proved to be an efficient and popular administrator. During his tenure in office (1760-76) Georgia enjoyed a period of remarkable growth.

Fort King George

Fort King George

Fort King George was originally constructed at the mouth of the Altamaha River in 1721 to protect the British claim to the Georgia colony. The fort was garrisoned until 1732. More than 250 years later, the fort was reconstructed and today houses a museum and replicas of the blockhouse (pictured) and barracks.

Courtesy of Fort King George

Map of Fort King George

Map of Fort King George

This map of Fort King George was likely drawn in 1722 by Colonel John "Tuscarora Jack" Barnwell, who established the fort near present-day Darien in 1721.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives.

Fort King George

Fort King George

The Union Jack flies above three cannons overlooking Black Island Creek at the reconstructed Fort King George near Darien. The original British garrison was established in 1721 and abandoned in 1732. The site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and reconstructed in 1988.

Courtesy of Fort King George

Tabby

Tabby

Traditional tabby, used for construction primarily along the coast, is composed of equal parts lime, water, sand, oyster shells, and ash. First introduced in Georgia by James Oglethorpe in 1736, tabby experienced revivals in the first half of the nineteenth century and again from the 1880s to 1920s.

Photograph by Jim Darby

The Barracks

The Barracks

Among the archaeological ruins remaining at Fort Frederica on St. Simons Island are the soldiers' barracks (pictured), along with the king's magazine and the house foundations and walls. The structures are made of tabby, a limey mortar.

Courtesy of Ed Mathews, Amelia Island Images

Camden County Public Library

Camden County Public Library

The Camden County Public Library was constructed in 1988 with "revival tabby," or traditional tabby mixed with Portland cement.

Photograph by Jim Darby

Tabby Ruins

Tabby Ruins

Tabby was used in the coastal Southeast from the late 1500s to the 1850s.

Courtesy of Patricia Barefoot

Elizabeth Lichtenstein Johnston

Elizabeth Lichtenstein Johnston

As a young girl, Elizabeth Lichtenstein Johnston first lived with her parents along the Little Ogeechee River in Georgia. In 1774, after the death of her mother, she was sent to Savannah, where she lived through the Revolutionary War. Johnston later wrote about her experiences during the war, including the 1779 siege on Savannah, in her memoir Recollections of a Georgia Loyalist.

Elizabeth Lichtenstein Johnston

Elizabeth Lichtenstein Johnston

Elizabeth Lichtenstein Johnston's memoir of the American Revolution, which she experienced as a young girl in Savannah, was published in 1901. The book, entitled Recollections of a Georgia Loyalist, provides one of the most detailed accounts available of a southern woman's experience during the war.

Ebenezer Creek

Ebenezer Creek

Ebenezer Creek in Effingham County was the site of Ebenezer, one of Georgia's first settlements. Founded by religious refugees from Salzburg during the 1730s, Ebenezer became a haven for other persecuted religious groups, including the Moravians.

Ebenezer

Ebenezer

This drawing portrays the settlement of Ebenezer, which was founded in the 1730s by colonists from Salzburg (later Austria) who had fled religious persecution. The settlers shunned the plantation industy, which was dependent on enslaved laborers, choosing instead to build a mill and produce silk as their primary means of income.

Wormsloe House

Wormsloe House

South front of the Wormsloe House, 1899. Victorian-style improvements were made to the family house by Wymberly Jones De Renne in the 1890s. The Victorian additions and ornamentation were removed by his daugher nearly forty-five years later.

Wormsloe Entrance

Wormsloe Entrance

A narrow road adorned with live oak trees along either side makes for a dramatic entrance to the Wormsloe historic site.

Photograph by Jeff Gunn

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Wormsloe

Wormsloe

The Wormsloe site, on the Isle of Hope peninsula, was an important part of the defense of the Georgia colony against the Spanish. A guard post and a marine garrison were located at Wormsloe during the colonial era.

Photograph by Katherine Bowman

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Tabby Ruins at Wormsloe

Tabby Ruins at Wormsloe

Noble Jones used tabby, a mixture of limestone, sand, and shells, to build fortifications at Wormsloe in 1740 for the defense of Savannah. In 1793 he began construction on a new tabby home, the ruins of which are still standing.

Image from G. Dawson

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George Wymberley Jones De Renne

George Wymberley Jones De Renne

Historical works made up the majority of the books privately printed by George Wymberley Jones De Renne. He called four of his publications the "Wormsloe Quartos" in honor of his family's ancestral estate.

Courtesy of Eudora De Renne Roebling

Wymberley Wormsloe De Renne

Wymberley Wormsloe De Renne

Wymberley Wormsloe De Renne worked off and on most of his life to complete the library his father had begun. The Catalogue of the Wymberley Jones De Renne Georgia Library became the basis of the sale of the De Renne Georgia Library in 1938 to the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia, for placement in the University of Georgia Libraries.

Courtesy of Eudora De Renne Roebling

Tourist Map of Wormsloe, 1930

Tourist Map of Wormsloe, 1930

In 1927 the Wormsloe estate was opened to the public as Wormsloe Gardens. The site became a popular tourist attraction. A tourist map from 1930 shows the layout of the property at the time.

Elfrida De Renne Barrow

Elfrida De Renne Barrow

In 1953 Barrow incorporated the Wormsloe Foundation, one of whose activities was the publication of historical works. Barrow is pictured here in a portrait by Edward August Bell (ca. 1905).

Courtesy of Elfrida Barrow Moore

Mary Musgrove

Mary Musgrove

Mary Musgrove (pictured with her third husband, the Reverend Thomas Bosomworth) served as a cultural liaison between colonial Georgia and her Native American community in the mid-eighteenth century. She took advantage of her biculturalism to protect Creek interests, maintain peace on the frontier, and expand her business as a trader.

Savannah City Plan, 1770

Savannah City Plan, 1770

Plans for the city of Savannah. James Oglethorpe designed a distinctive pattern of streets, ten-house tythings, and public squares.

McKinnon Savannah Map

McKinnon Savannah Map

An early map of Savannah, drawn by John McKinnon circa 1800.

Savannah, 1889

Savannah, 1889

A drawing of the city of Savannah, circa 1889.

Savannah City Plan, 1734

Savannah City Plan, 1734

The original caption of this print by Paul Fourdrinier reads: "A View of Savannah as it stood on the 29th of March 1734. To the Hon[orable] Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America. This View of the Town of Savannah is humbly dedicated by their Honours Obliged and most Obedient Servant, Peter Gordon."

Button Gwinnett’s Signature

Button Gwinnett’s Signature

Button Gwinnett's signature is said to be one of the rarest and most valuable of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. The signature is housed at the Georgia Archives in Morrow.

Image from Wikimedia

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Wrightsborough

Wrightsborough

Little remains of the Quaker settlement of Wrightsborough, located in present-day McDuffie County.

Courtesy of Forrest Shropshire

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe, the founder of Georgia, was a forward-thinking visionary who demonstrated great skill as a social reformer and military leader. This portrait is a copy of Oglethorpe University's oval portrait of Oglethorpe, which was painted in 1744. The portrait was discovered in England by Thornwell Jacobs and brought back to Atlanta to hang in the president's office at Oglethorpe University.

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe, a leader in the British movement to found a new colony in America, set sail for the new world on November 17, 1732, accompanied by Georgia's first settlers.

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe, along with a twenty-one-member Board of Trustees, founded the colony of Georgia in 1733 and directed its development for nearly a decade. Although the board appointed Anglican clergy to the new colony, Oglethorpe welcomed settlers of a variety of religious persuasions.

Courtesy of Oglethorpe University

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe defended the new colony of Georgia militarily, holding the titles of general and commander in chief.

James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe

Georgians have honored founder James Oglethorpe by naming a county, two cities, a university, and numerous schools, streets, parks, and businesses for him.

Planning the Town of Savannah

Planning the Town of Savannah

In February 1733 James Oglethorpe began implementing plans for the new town of Savannah. A pine forest on the Yamacraw Bluff, overlooking the south bank of the Savannah River, was cleared.

James Oglethorpe Stamp

James Oglethorpe Stamp

The U.S. Postal Service issued a stamp featuring Georgia founder James Oglethorpe for the state's bicentennial anniversary in 1933.

Courtesy of Smithsonian National Postal Museum

Yuchi Hunters

Yuchi Hunters

Yuchi Indians, depicted in traditional hunting clothing, also carry items acquired through trade with the English, notably the central figure's blanket and rifle.

Illustration by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck

Woodcut from 1839 Anti-Slavery Almanac

Woodcut from 1839 Anti-Slavery Almanac

A woodcut depicts the capture of a fugitive from slavery by a slave patrol. Slave patrols were common in Georgia from 1757 until the end of the Civil War in 1865.

From The American Anti-Slavery Almanac for 1839

Slave Patrols

Slave Patrols

A Georgia statute ordered white adults to ride the roads at night, stopping all enslaved people they encountered and making them prove that they were engaged in lawful activities. Patrollers required enslaved people to produce a pass, which stated their owner's name as well as where and when they were allowed to be away from the plantation and for how long.

From The Underground Railroad, by William Still

Daguerreotype of Enslaved Woman

Daguerreotype of Enslaved Woman

Rare daguerreotype of an enslaved woman in Watkinsville, photographed in 1853. A placard with the date "1853," which reads correctly for the camera, is visible. The use of a book as a prop is unusual for an image of an enslaved person.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
clr210-92.

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Enslaved Woman

Enslaved Woman

Enslaved women played an integral part in Georgia's colonial and antebellum history. Scholars are beginning to pay more attention to issues of gender in their study of slavery and are finding that enslaved women faced additional burdens and even more challenges than did some enslaved men.

Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries, Robert E. Williams Photographic Collection.

Enslaved Woman

Enslaved Woman

Antebellum planters kept meticulous records of the people they enslaved, identifying several traditionally female occupations, including washerwomen.

Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries, Robert E. Williams Photographic Collection.

Enslaved Children

Enslaved Children

Enslavers clothed both male and female enslaved children in smocks and assigned them such duties as carrying water to the fields. As the children neared the age of ten, slaveholders began making distinctions between the genders.

Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries, Robert E. Williams Photographic Collection.

Enslaved Women in Cotton Field

Enslaved Women in Cotton Field

Since antebellum planters reserved artisan positions for enslaved males, the majority of the (rice and cotton) field hands were female. Enslaved women constituted nearly 60 percent of the field workforce on coastal plantations.

Ellen Craft

Ellen Craft

The daughter of an African American woman and her white enslaver, Ellen looked white and was able to escape slavery by disguising herself as a southern slaveholder.

From The Underground Rail Road, by W. Still

Fanny Kemble

Fanny Kemble

An English actress, Kemble married Pierce Mease Butler and was upset to learn of the family's slave labor operations. She eventually published an account of her impressions of slavery, after divorcing Butler and losing custody of their two children.

Silk Filature

Silk Filature

Peter Tondee and his business partner built a silk filature on Reynolds Square in 1759. The building served multiple public functions before it was destroyed by fire in 1839.

Courtesy of Carl Solana Weeks

Peter Tondee

Peter Tondee

Peter Tondee's Long Room, which stood at the northwest corner of Broughton and Whitaker streets in Savannah, became center stage for the political drama that brought a fledgling province into the ranks of the war for American liberty, and it served for several years during and after the Revolution as the seat of government for the new state.

Courtesy of Walter Wright and David A. Hammond

King George II

King George II

King George II of England signed the charter creating the colony of Georgia on April 21, 1732. Originally administered by a board of trustees, the colony later came under the direct governance of the king, from 1752 until his death in 1760, when his grandson George III assumed the throne.

Noble W. Jones

Noble W. Jones

Noble W. Jones was prominent among Georgia's Whig leaders before and during the American Revolution, serving in both the provincial and state legislatures and in the Continental Congress. Portrait by Charles Willson Peale, circa 1781.

Courtesy of Telfair Museums, Courtesy of the Wormsloe Foundation.

Sir John Percival, Earl of Egmont

Sir John Percival, Earl of Egmont

John Viscount Percival, the earl of Egmont, was the first president of the common council and the dominant figure among the Trustees until his retirement in 1742. He acted as Georgia's champion in Parliament.

From History of Georgia, by C. Howell

Seal of the Trustees

Seal of the Trustees

One face of the seal adopted by the Georgia Trustees features a silkworm, mulberry leaf, and cocoon, representing their hopes that the colonists would establish a thriving silk industry. The Latin motto Non sibi sed aliis  translates as "Not for self, but for others."

Georgia Trustees Medallion

Georgia Trustees Medallion

A bronze replica of the 1733 seal of the Trustees is presented to recipients of the Georgia Trustees honor, which is awarded annually by the Georgia Historical Society and the Office of the Governor.

Peruvian Bark

Peruvian Bark

Peruvian bark (Cinchona calisaya), also known as quinine, was grown during the mid-eighteenth century in the Trustee Garden at Savannah. Cultivated by the Georgia colonists as a medical botanical for the lowering of fevers, quinine was later used in the nineteenth century to treat malaria.

From Kohler's Medizinal-Pflanzen, by F. E. Kohler

Trustee Garden Depiction

Trustee Garden Depiction