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Prohibition Parade Float

Prohibition Parade Float

Young women and children ride on a parade float promoting prohibition in Hawkinsville (Pulaski County), circa 1919.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
pul097a.

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Black and white photograph of WTCU parade float in Bainbridge, Georgia

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union

Women's Christian Temperance Movement (WTCU) members participate in the Decatur County centennial parade in Bainbridge, 1923. The WCTU formed its first Georgia chapter in 1880. Largely due to their efforts, Georgia passed a local option law in 1885.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
dec014.

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Black and white photograph of crowd gathered in Valdosta for 1907 prohibition vote

Prohibition Vote

A crowd gathered in front of the Lowndes County courthouse in Valdosta for a prohibition vote in 1907. That year, Georgia became the first state in the South to pass a statewide ban on the production, transportation, and sale of alcohol.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
low104.

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Black and white photograph of crowd celebrating the end of prohibition in Marietta, Georgia, 1935

End of Prohibition

A crowd in Marietta celebrates the end of prohibition. In 1935 the Georgia legislature approved the Alcoholic Beverage Control Act, which called for a statewide referendum on the issue of repeal and tasked the State Revenue Commission with drafting new regulations to govern the sale and distribution of alcohol.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Black and white photograph of Milledgeville State Hospital circa 1940

Milledgeville State Hospital

A sleeping ward at Milledgeville State Hospital for the Insane, circa 1940. Authorities at the hospital practiced compulsory sterilization of patients throughout the 1940s and 1950s. Following an award-winning 1959 report by Atlanta Constitution Jack Nelson, the number of operations dropped dramatically before finally ceasing in 1963.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive .

Black and white photo of Francis Galton

Francis Galton

Francis Galton was an English statistician whose theories on heredity lead him to develop the field of eugenics. During the early twentieth century, Galton's ideas gained support among scientific and medical professionals, politicians, and Progressive-era reform groups.

Image from Eveleen Myers

Georgia State Sanitarium

Georgia State Sanitarium

This tinted postcard of the Georgia State Sanitarium (later Central State Hospital) depicts the grounds of the institution circa 1905. During this time the hospital was under the leadership of Theophilus O. Powell, who implemented more precise methods of diagnosis.

Courtesy of Melinda Smith Mullikin, New Georgia Encyclopedia

E. D. Rivers

E. D. Rivers

E. D. Rivers speaks in 1939, during his second gubernatorial term, at a gathering in Union County, located in the north Georgia mountains. During his first term, Rivers secured federal funding to support public housing and rural electrification in the state.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #uni005.

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Soybeans

Soybeans

The soybean plant, first introduced to Georgia in 1765, originated in China. The plant was brought to the Georgia colony by Samuel Bowen, who planted it after settling in Savannah. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, the U.S. Department of Agriculture encouraged the cultivation of soybeans in the state.

Photograph by Carl Dennis, Auburn University. Courtesy of IPM Images

Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Little White House

Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Little White House

In 1924, three years after Roosevelt contracted polio, he began visiting Warm Springs in Georgia. The springs were thought to be beneficial for polio victims. Roosevelt, who became the U.S. president in 1932, is pictured in front of the Little White House in Warm Springs.

Cotton Farmers

Cotton Farmers

Members of a Heard County family pose in front of their cotton crop, circa 1900. Residents of the county began raising cotton in the nineteenth century, but many were forced to abandon the crop during the first decades of the twentieth century, in the wake of the boll weevil devastations and the Great Depression.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
hrd005.

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Soybean Pod

Soybean Pod

Soybeans were introduced to the United States by Samuel Bowen, a seaman who brought the seeds from China. At Bowen's request, Henry Yonge planted the first soybean crop on his farm in Thunderbolt, a few miles east of Savannah, in 1765.

Photograph by the United Soybean Board

Roosevelt Signs Social Security Act

Roosevelt Signs Social Security Act

U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act on August 14, 1935. He read this statement upon signing the act: "We can never insure one hundred percent of the population against one hundred percent of the hazards and vicissitudes of life, but we have tried to frame a law which will give some measure of protection to the average citizen and to his family against the loss of a job and against poverty-ridden old age."

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Parade Vehicle

Parade Vehicle

Riding in a car decorated as a float, representatives of the Georgia Young People Suffrage Association participate in a 1920 parade.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
geo088.

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Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson

Many of the major Progressive era reforms were enacted at the federal level by Congress, under the leadership of U.S. presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson (pictured circa 1920).

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois is Georgia's most distinguished example of a progressive intellectual who wed social science to the analysis of public issues. In 1910 he founded the NAACP, one of the most significant products of the Progressive era.

Image from Univeristy of Massachusetts Amherst, Special Collections and University Archives, W. E. B. Du Bois Papers.

Nellie Peters Black

Nellie Peters Black

Nellie Peters Black served three terms as president of the Georgia Federation of Women's Clubs. She led Georgia women in supporting U.S. president Woodrow Wilson's thrift and conservation campaigns during the Progressive era.

Hoke Smith

Hoke Smith

Governor Hoke Smith is perhaps the figure most associated with Progressive era reform in the state. During his governorship reforms were seen in education and railroad regulation; the convict lease system was abolished; and a major public health project, a state sanatorium for tuberculosis patients, was undertaken.

Segregated Depot

Segregated Depot

A postcard depicts passengers waiting outside a segregated train depot in Suwanee (Gwinnett County), circa 1915.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
gwn120.

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William J. Northen

William J. Northen

During his tenure as governor, from 1890 to 1894, William J. Northen limited the workday for railroad employees to thirteen hours and granted the Georgia Railroad Commission power to regulate telegraph companies. He also advanced agricultural inspection and education.

Image from Wikimedia Commons

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Street Improvement

Street Improvement

Workers prepare Broad Street in LaGrange for paving, circa 1900. The men on the left are installing water and sewer lines.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
trp071.

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1906 Gubernatorial Campaign

1906 Gubernatorial Campaign

Residents of Fitzgerald in Ben Hill County gather for a political rally for Hoke Smith, owner of the Atlanta Journal, during the gubernatorial race of 1906. Smith, the Democratic candidate, won the election over Clark Howell, his rival publisher at the Atlanta Constitution.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ben121.

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Clay County School

Clay County School

The student body at the first public school in Clay County poses for a photograph in 1905. Built in 1903, the school was located on Jefferson Street in Fort Gaines and was destroyed by fire in 1927.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
cly018.

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Hancock Rosenwald School

Hancock Rosenwald School

This Rosenwald School in Hancock County was one of 242 such schools built in Georgia. Although education reform was a priority for the state during the Progressive era, reform for Black schools was often left to northern philanthropic organizations, such as the Rosenwald Fund.

From Preface to Peasantry: A Tale of Two Black Belt Counties, by A. F. Raper

Tuberculosis Sanatorium

Tuberculosis Sanatorium

In 1911 the state of Georgia opened a public sanatorium in Banks County for the treatment of tuberculosis. The sanatorium was the state's most ambitious health project up to that time, and marked a new interest in public health, a product of the Progressive era.

From History of Public Health in Georgia, 1733-1950, by T. F. Abercrombie

Child Worker

Child Worker

In this 1913 photograph by Lewis Hine, a young girl works at a machine at the Walker County Hosiery Mills in LaFayette.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Convict Labor

Convict Labor

Convicts are shown circa 1909 working on one of the first graded roads in Rockdale County. The convict lease system was abolished in 1908, as one of many reforms enacted during the Progressive era, but soon chain gangs took the place of convict leasing.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
roc063.

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Georgia and Alabama Railroad

Georgia and Alabama Railroad

The Georgia and Alabama Railroad depot in Fitzgerald is pictured around the turn of the twentieth century. Railroad regulation was one of the major reforms of the Progressive era.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, # ben326.

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Tenant Farmhouse

Tenant Farmhouse

A boy stands on the porch of a tenant farmhouse in Troup County, circa 1933. The typical Georgia farm family of this period had no electricity, no running water, and no indoor privies.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
trp186.

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Sharecropping Family, Macon County

Sharecropping Family, Macon County

Cotton sharecropper family in Macon County, 1937. The Great Depression did not end in Georgia until the United States entered World War II in 1941.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photograph by Dorothea Lange, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF34-017922-C.

Sharecroppers, Greene County

Sharecroppers, Greene County

Cotton sharecroppers in Greene County, 1937. The sociologist Arthur F. Raper studied the county in the 1930s and found that soil depletion, low cotton prices, and boll weevil attacks were causing a massive outmigration of farmers.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photograph by Dorothea Lange, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF34-T01-017335-C.

Cotton Bales on Loading Dock

Cotton Bales on Loading Dock

Bales of cotton on one of Savannah's docks are being loaded for shipment, circa 1930. During the Great Depression Savannah's residents were protected economically by the city's pivotal role as a seaport and exporter.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ctm148.

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Depression-Era Tourist Camp

Depression-Era Tourist Camp

The home of an itinerant family is pictured circa 1939 in Fulton County. During the hard economic times of the Great Depression, some families traveled around the South, performing repairs and other odd jobs.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photograph by Marion Post Wolcott., #LC-USF33-030330-M4.

Inauguration of Governor E. D. Rivers

Inauguration of Governor E. D. Rivers

Running on a campaign to bring U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal economic relief programs to Georgia, E. D. Rivers was elected governor by a wide margin in 1936, the height of the Great Depression.

Courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration

Camp Homerville

Camp Homerville

Camp Homerville, pictured in 1934, was established in Clinch County during the Great Depression by the Civilian Conservation Corps, Company 1413. Members of the corps focused on forestry and photography.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ccc009.

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Work Detail, Civilian Conservation Corps

Work Detail, Civilian Conservation Corps

A Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) work detail group is shown in Reidsville (Tattnall County) in 1935. During the Great Depression, New Deal programs like the CCC helped put thousands of Georgians back to work.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ccc048.

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Planting Cotton, 1941

Planting Cotton, 1941

A Heard County farmer plants cotton in 1941. The photographer, Jack Delano, worked under the auspices of the Farm Security Administration documenting farm families in Georgia.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF34-044231-D.

Federal Writers Project

Federal Writers Project

An African American woman, working for the Federal Writers Project (FWP), in 1936. The FWP was a component of the Works Progress Administration, and the project employed out-of-work writers, artists, local historians, genealogists, folklorists, and librarians as researchers and writers. A major effort of the FWP was the creation of state guidebooks.

An Hour before Daylight

An Hour before Daylight

U.S. president Jimmy Carter is one of many Georgians who have written memoirs about living through the Great Depression. An Hour before Daylight contains Carter's childhood memories of rural life in southwest Georgia during the 1930s.

W. C. Bradley

W. C. Bradley

During the Great Depression, W. C. Bradley, a Columbus businessman, operated his mills at a loss to avoid laying off workers. Many businesses and residents around the state also extended helping hands to others during the extended economic crisis.

Courtesy of Synovus

Ellen Craft in Disguise

Ellen Craft in Disguise

To escape slavery, light-skinned Ellen Craft disguised herself as a male enslaver. Her husband, William, who was darker skinned, posed as her valet. They successfully traveled to the North, and eventually to England, where they published a narrative recounting their lives in slavery and their daring escape.

John Brown

John Brown

A fugitive from slavery in Georgia, John Brown provided one of the few book-length testimonials of what it was like to be enslaved in the Deep South, Slave Life in Georgia: A Narrative of the Life, Sufferings, and Escape of John Brown, A Fugitive Slave, Now in England (1855).

AUDIO: Excerpt from Slave Life in Georgia, by John Brown

In this excerpt from his 1855 slave narrative, Slave Life in Georgia, John Brown describes his experience as an enslaved laborer and the humiliation of being sold to a new slave owner. Read by Jay Williams.Audio by Georgia Public Broadcasting and New Georgia Encyclopedia.

Slave Narratives

Slave Narratives

This photograph of Josephine Hill, a freed woman, was taken in 1937 or 1938 for the slave narrative collection, part of the Federal Writers' Project.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Federal Writers' Project Slave Narratives Collections, #LC-USZ62-125143.

Drums and Shadows

Drums and Shadows

A series of narratives based on interviews with formerly enslaved people living along the Georgia coast, Drums and Shadows (1940) was a pioneering work of scholarship. It recorded for posterity examples of folklore, speech, naming patterns, and material culture that have since disappeared.

Convict Labor

Convict Labor

A prison-labor crew and guard are photographed in Atlanta in 1895. One of the state's primary revenue sources during the late nineteenth century, convict leasing was outlawed in 1908 after reports of harsh working conditions and brutal punishments were made public.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #ful0391.

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Chain Gang Labor

Chain Gang Labor

A Georgia chain gang builds a road in Oglethorpe County in 1941. After the prohibition of convict leasing in 1908, the state implemented the chain gang system as a source of inexpensive labor on major construction projects.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Lena Baker

Lena Baker

In 1945 Lena Baker became the first, and to date only, woman to be executed in Georgia. Convicted of murdering her employer, Baker was sentenced to death despite her insistence that she acted in self-defense. In 2005 she was pardoned posthumously by the state Board of Pardons and Paroles.

Courtesy of Lela Phillips

Georgia’s Electric Chair

Georgia’s Electric Chair

The electric chair at Reidsville State Prison was known morbidly as "Old Sparky." It was used for executions in Georgia until 2001, when the state supreme court pronounced electrocution to be cruel and unusual punishment. Today, the chair is on display at the Reidsville prison.

Photograph by Karan Pittman

Fulton County Sewing Project

Fulton County Sewing Project

The Fulton County Sewing Project employed many Atlanta women in the 1930s and was one of a number of service ventures operated by the Civil Works Administration's Divison of Women's Work. Formed in 1933, the CWA was among the many New Deal agencies and programs designed to provide relief to Americans during the Great Depression.

Franklin D. Roosevelt at Warm Springs

Franklin D. Roosevelt at Warm Springs

Through his foundation at Warm Springs, Franklin D. Roosevelt began to study the connections between Georgia's difficult agricultural conditions and its social and educational problems. His New Deal programs would ultimately address the nation's and Georgia's social conditions.

WPA House

WPA House

As part of a New Deal Works Progress Administration project, workers construct a house in Smithsonia (or Smithonia), in Oglethorpe County.

Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries, Works Progress Administration in Georgia, 1936.

E. D. Rivers

E. D. Rivers

E. D. Rivers was elected governor of Georgia in 1936 as an avid supporter of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Harris & Ewing Collection.

Walter F. George

Walter F. George

Up to 1937 U.S. senator Walter F. George had supported most of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's major New Deal programs, but he joined a coalition of Republicans and conservative Democrats who resisted further reforms. In 1945 George supported Roosevelt's efforts to create the United Nations charter.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, National Photo Company Collection.

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Davis Street School Extension

Davis Street School Extension

The Davis Street School Extension in Atlanta under construction as part of the Works Progress Administration Program, November 2, 1936.

Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries, Works Progress Administration in Georgia, 1936.

African American Training School

African American Training School

Bibb County African American training school under construction, Works Progress Administration Program, 1936.

Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries, Works Progress Administration in Georgia, 1936.

Eugene Talmadge

Eugene Talmadge

In Governor Eugene Talmadge, Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal found one of its most vigorous opponents. In Talmadge's first two terms as governor (1933-37), Georgia state government subverted many of the early New Deal programs.

Courtesy of Atlanta History Center.

Leo Frank

Leo Frank

Leo Frank, the superintendent of the National Pencil Company in Atlanta, was convicted of the murder of factory worker Mary Phagan in 1913. Frank was lynched by a mob in Marietta in 1915 after Governor John M. Slaton commuted Frank's death sentence to life imprisonment.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Leo Frank

Leo Frank

Leo Frank, the superintendent of the National Pencil Company in Atlanta, was convicted of the murder of factory worker Mary Phagan in 1913. Frank was lynched by a mob in Marietta in 1915 after Governor John M. Slaton commuted Frank's death sentence to life imprisonment.

Leo Frank Marker

Leo Frank Marker

A historical marker stands near the site of Leo Frank's lynching in Cobb County. Dedicated in March 2008, the marker was erected by the Georgia Historical Society, the Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation, and Temple Kol Emeth.

Courtesy of Georgia Historical Society, Historical Marker Program.

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Leo Frank on Trial

Leo Frank on Trial

Leo Frank, pictured at trial, was tried for the murder of Mary Phagan in July 1913. He was convicted of murder largely due to the testimony of Jim Conley, who had been in solitary confinement for six weeks before trial and who had given contradictory testimony in the past.

Photograph from Wikimedia

Police Have the Strangler

Police Have the Strangler

Leo Frank’s lawyers and northern observers argued that Frank was convicted of murder because of the hostile public atmosphere. The Atlanta Georgian reported that Frank was the murderer before he had stood trial.

Photograph by Wikimedia

Mary Phagan

Mary Phagan

Mary Phagan a penicl factory worker, was raped and murdered in 1913. The factory manager Leo Frank was convicted for the murder and imprisoned but then was lynched two years later on August, 16 1915.

Courtesy of Atlanta History Center.

Woman Suffrage Button

Woman Suffrage Button

A political button, circa 1918, promotes woman suffrage.

The Suffragist

The Suffragist

A cartoon by Nina Evans Allender from a May 1919 issue of The Suffragist.

Prisoners Socializing

Prisoners Socializing

In Macon and Dublin POW camps, German prisoners of World War II were treated well and given plenty of leisure time. In many cases, these inmates retained a strong sense of camaraderie.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Tracy O'Neal Photographic Collection.

Prison Record

Prison Record

Military camps reserved a special section of their personnel records for "alien enemies," or foreign prisoners of war.

German Prisoners of War

German Prisoners of War

German prisoners of war pose at Chatham Field Prisoner of War Camp, Fort Stewart, outside of Savannah, around 1944.

Courtesy of United States Army

POWs Arriving at Camp

POWs Arriving at Camp

The officers and crew of the German submarine U.58, captured by the U.S.S. Fanning, enter the War Prison Camp at Fort McPherson, 1918.