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Prohibition Parade Float

Prohibition Parade Float

Young women and children ride on a parade float promoting prohibition in Hawkinsville (Pulaski County), circa 1919.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
pul097a.

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Black and white photograph of WTCU parade float in Bainbridge, Georgia

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union

Women's Christian Temperance Movement (WTCU) members participate in the Decatur County centennial parade in Bainbridge, 1923. The WCTU formed its first Georgia chapter in 1880. Largely due to their efforts, Georgia passed a local option law in 1885.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
dec014.

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Black and white photograph of crowd gathered in Valdosta for 1907 prohibition vote

Prohibition Vote

A crowd gathered in front of the Lowndes County courthouse in Valdosta for a prohibition vote in 1907. That year, Georgia became the first state in the South to pass a statewide ban on the production, transportation, and sale of alcohol.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
low104.

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Black and white photograph of crowd celebrating the end of prohibition in Marietta, Georgia, 1935

End of Prohibition

A crowd in Marietta celebrates the end of prohibition. In 1935 the Georgia legislature approved the Alcoholic Beverage Control Act, which called for a statewide referendum on the issue of repeal and tasked the State Revenue Commission with drafting new regulations to govern the sale and distribution of alcohol.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.

Black and white photograph of Milledgeville State Hospital circa 1940

Milledgeville State Hospital

A sleeping ward at Milledgeville State Hospital for the Insane, circa 1940. Authorities at the hospital practiced compulsory sterilization of patients throughout the 1940s and 1950s. Following an award-winning 1959 report by Atlanta Constitution Jack Nelson, the number of operations dropped dramatically before finally ceasing in 1963.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive .

Black and white photo of Francis Galton

Francis Galton

Francis Galton was an English statistician whose theories on heredity lead him to develop the field of eugenics. During the early twentieth century, Galton's ideas gained support among scientific and medical professionals, politicians, and Progressive-era reform groups.

Image from Eveleen Myers

Georgia State Sanitarium

Georgia State Sanitarium

This tinted postcard of the Georgia State Sanitarium (later Central State Hospital) depicts the grounds of the institution circa 1905. During this time the hospital was under the leadership of Theophilus O. Powell, who implemented more precise methods of diagnosis.

Courtesy of Melinda Smith Mullikin, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Black and white photo of USS Savannah

USS Savannah (CL-42)

The fourth USS Savannah (CL-42) engaged in Atlantic and Meditteranean operations during World War II (1941-45), most notably Operation Torch, the allied invasion of North Africa.

Photograph by Naval History and Heritage Command

Black and white drawing of the USS Savannah

USS Savannah

The second USS Savannah completed naval operations in the Mexican and Civil Wars.  

From Old Naval Days: Sketches From the Life of Rear Admiral William Radford, U. S. N. by Sophie Radford De Meissner, Wikimedia

Black and white photo of USS Savannah (AS-8)

USS Savannah (AS-8)

The third USS Savannah (AS-8) served as a submarine tender during World War I (1917-18).

Photograph by Naval History and Heritage Command

books

books

Moina Michael plants Poppies on the University of Georgia campus

Moina Michael Poppies

Moina Michael plants poppies on the University of Georgia campus. As a result of her efforts, red poppies became a symbol for military sacrifice around the world.

Photograph from UGA Today

Postage Stamp Featuring Moina Michael

Moina Michael Stamp

A commemorative stamp honoring Moina Belle Michael, a Walton County native and originator of the red memorial poppy, was first issued in November 1948. After World War I, paper poppies were sold and worn on Remembrance Day (Armistice Day), held on the second Sunday in November in Britain, to fund soldier rehabilitation.

Courtesy of Smithsonian National Postal Museum

Moina Michael Envelope and Stamps

Moina Michael Envelope and Stamps

This envelope commemorates Moina Belle Michael, longtime Georgia educator and World War I remembrance advocate.

Courtesy of Digital Library of Georgia, Athens-Clarke County Library Collection.

Moina Michael

Moina Michael

Moina Belle Michael first proposed that silk or paper red field poppies be worn as a memorial symbol for soldiers who died during World War I (1917-18). Through her advocacy, Michael earned the nickname the "Poppy Lady."

Moina Michael in Athens

Moina Michael in Athens

Born in Good Hope in Walton County, Michael had a long career as a rural schoolteacher, administrator, and college professor. She is pictured at the State Normal School in Athens, where she served as social director after World War I.

Courtesy of Digital Library of Georgia, Athens-Clarke County Library Collection.

Moina Michael with Veterans

Moina Michael with Veterans

In the years following World War I, the memorial poppy was adopted by the American Legion, its Auxiliary, and the Veterans of Foreign Wars. Since then, poppy sales have raised millions for veterans' groups. Here, Moina Michael meets with veterans after the release of her book, The Miracle Flower: The Story of the Flanders Field Memorial Poppy (1941). 

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection.

Cover of The Miracle Flower by Moina Michael

The Miracle Flower by Moina Michael

Moina Michael's biography The Miracle Flower: The Story of the Flanders Field Memorial Poppy (1941) details her inspiration to make the red field poppy a symbol of remembrance.

Military Training at Camp Gordon

Military Training at Camp Gordon

During World War I General John Pershing insisted that U.S. troops, pictured here in 1917 near Camp Gordon in DeKalb County, learn open warfare techniques as well as European-style trench warfare.

Courtesy of Atlanta History Center, Photograph by Kenneth Rogers.

Camp Hancock Formation

Camp Hancock Formation

This military formation, shown from an aerial view circa 1918, included 22,500 soldiers and 600 machine guns to replicate the insignia of the Machine Gun Training Center at Camp Hancock, near Augusta.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Camp Hancock

Camp Hancock

Camp Hancock, near Augusta, is pictured circa 1917. Many Georgians trained for the National Guard at this camp during World War I.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ric142.

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Souther Field Hangar

Souther Field Hangar

Soldiers pose in an airplane hangar at Souther Field, near Americus, in 1918. During World War I Souther Field, with 16 hangars, 150 aircraft, and 2,000 pilots, was essential to meeting the Allied forces' aerial warfare needs.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
sum042.

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Oglethorpe University SATC

Oglethorpe University SATC

Oglethorpe University cadets in the Student Army Training Corps (SATC) during World War I rally around the flag. "It makes Oglethorpe look like West Point," said university president Thornwell Jacobs.

Camp Gordon YMCA

Camp Gordon YMCA

The YMCA, present at all military camps, was vital to army morale during World War I (1917-18). This building at Camp Gordon housed the first telephone exchange in Chamblee. 

Courtesy of Paul Stephen Hudson and Lora Pond Mirza

E. D. Rivers

E. D. Rivers

E. D. Rivers speaks in 1939, during his second gubernatorial term, at a gathering in Union County, located in the north Georgia mountains. During his first term, Rivers secured federal funding to support public housing and rural electrification in the state.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #uni005.

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Dixie Highway Arch

Dixie Highway Arch

A concrete arch stretches over the Dixie Highway in Waycross, circa 1925.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Dixie Highway Map, 1922

Dixie Highway Map, 1922

Divisions of the Dixie Highway in Georgia and Dates Authorized: (1) Western Division (1915)—between Chattanooga and Cassville, divided into a Rome branch and a Dalton branch; (2) Eastern Division (1916)—also known as "Old State Capital Route"; (3) Eastern Division (1916)—formerly known as the "Atlantic Coastal Highway," "Atlantic Highway," and "Quebec-Miami Highway"; (4) Central Division (1916)—commonly known as the "Central Dixie Highway"; (5) Carolina Division (1918); and (6) Untitled Division (1922)—consisting of that portion of what was then known as the "National Highway" from Perry to Florida and sometimes referred to as the "Dixie-National Highway."See full-size map.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Schillings Auto Camp Advertisement, 1917

Schillings Auto Camp Advertisement, 1917

To save lodging costs, many Dixie Highway motorists spent the night sleeping on a cot in a waterproof canvas tent that attached to the side of their car.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Future Dixie Highway, circa 1915

Future Dixie Highway, circa 1915

For years, many portions of the Dixie Highway in Georgia remained dirt roads. After heavy rains, many cars became stuck in the mud. Rural residents living along these dirt roads often earned extra money by using a team of horses to pull cars through the muddy sections.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Dixie Highway Map, 1919

Dixie Highway Map, 1919

The Dixie Highway stretched from Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, south to Miami, Florida.See full-size map.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Roadside Camping

Roadside Camping

As evening approached, many Dixie Highway tourists would pull off the road and set up one or more tents, often spending the night along the road or in a grove of trees.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Roadside Stand, Adairsville

Roadside Stand, Adairsville

Chenille bedspreads and other souvenirs are sold at a roadside stand on the Dixie Highway in Adairsville, circa 1930. The chenille industry first developed in Dalton, and roadside stands selling bedspreads, bathrobes, throw rugs, and other items became popular along the Dixie Highway from Michigan to Florida.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
brt126.

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Eulonia Post Office

Eulonia Post Office

Entrepreneurs along the Dixie Highway opened up all types of businesses to serve the traveling motorist—including tourist camps, lodges, garages, restaurants, and souvenir shops. This Eulonia businessman opened a combination gas station, grocery store, restaurant, post office, bus station, and public telephone.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Ford Model T and Trailer

Ford Model T and Trailer

A Ford Model T and attached trailer are pictured circa 1925. Because early automobiles did not have trunks for storage of suitcases, tents, portable stoves, food, extra gas, and other traveling necessities, many tourists used a two-wheel utility trailer to carry supplies.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Old Dixie Highway Sign

Old Dixie Highway Sign

An exit sign on I-75 south of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is one of the few remaining markers of old Dixie Highway routes in Georgia.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Calhoun Tourist Lodge

Calhoun Tourist Lodge

A tourist lodge in Calhoun is pictured circa 1925. Entrepreneurs developed rustic lodges, inns, and courts for Dixie Highway tourists. The early lodges were primitive, often without heat, running water, or a private bathroom. By the early 1930s motels dotted the Dixie Highway, spelling the beginning of the end for small-town hotels.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Wilson’s Tourist Camp

Wilson’s Tourist Camp

Wilson's Tourist Camp, which was located along the Dixie Higway in Lakewood, south of Atlanta, is pictured circa 1925. 

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Wilson’s Tourist Camp

Wilson’s Tourist Camp

A section of Wilson's Tourist Camp, pictured circa 1925, was reserved for early motor homes. The camp was located along the Dixie Highway in Lakewood, south of Atlanta.

Courtesy of Edwin L. Jackson

Soybeans

Soybeans

The soybean plant, first introduced to Georgia in 1765, originated in China. The plant was brought to the Georgia colony by Samuel Bowen, who planted it after settling in Savannah. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, the U.S. Department of Agriculture encouraged the cultivation of soybeans in the state.

Photograph by Carl Dennis, Auburn University. Courtesy of IPM Images

Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Little White House

Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Little White House

In 1924, three years after Roosevelt contracted polio, he began visiting Warm Springs in Georgia. The springs were thought to be beneficial for polio victims. Roosevelt, who became the U.S. president in 1932, is pictured in front of the Little White House in Warm Springs.

Cotton Farmers

Cotton Farmers

Members of a Heard County family pose in front of their cotton crop, circa 1900. Residents of the county began raising cotton in the nineteenth century, but many were forced to abandon the crop during the first decades of the twentieth century, in the wake of the boll weevil devastations and the Great Depression.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
hrd005.

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Soybean Pod

Soybean Pod

Soybeans were introduced to the United States by Samuel Bowen, a seaman who brought the seeds from China. At Bowen's request, Henry Yonge planted the first soybean crop on his farm in Thunderbolt, a few miles east of Savannah, in 1765.

Photograph by the United Soybean Board

Roosevelt Signs Social Security Act

Roosevelt Signs Social Security Act

U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act on August 14, 1935. He read this statement upon signing the act: "We can never insure one hundred percent of the population against one hundred percent of the hazards and vicissitudes of life, but we have tried to frame a law which will give some measure of protection to the average citizen and to his family against the loss of a job and against poverty-ridden old age."

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Jesse O. Thomas

Jesse O. Thomas

Jesse O. Thomas, a Mississippi native, moved to Atlanta in 1919 and opened the Field Secretary Office of the National Urban League. During his tenure, he hired the first two Black public school nurses in Atlanta and organized the school of social work at Atlanta University (later Clark Atlanta University). During the 1940s the American Red Cross recruited him as its first African American employee, and he led the racial integration efforts of that organization until 1950. 

Courtesy of Archives Division, Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History, Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System

Jesse O. Thomas

Jesse O. Thomas

Jesse O. Thomas, as head of the National Urban League's field office in Atlanta, played a prominent role in the city for nearly two decades. During World War II he created a highly successful program with the U.S. Treasury to sell war bonds to the African American community.

Courtesy of Archives Division, Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History, Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System

Oat Harvesting

Oat Harvesting

Alonzo Fields (far right), the farm supervisor at the Flint River Farms Resettlement Community in Macon County, directs the harvesting of oats in 1939. Flint River Farms was an experimental planned community established in 1937 for African American sharecroppers.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF33- 030402-M1 [P&P].

School Campus

School Campus

The school building at the Flint River Farms Resettlement Community, an experimental farm established in Macon County for African American sharecroppers, included a schoolhouse, teacher's residence, and related buildings.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

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Farm Houses

Farm Houses

An old and a new house at Flint River Farms Resettlement Community in Macon County are pictured in 1937. Cotton grows in the foreground.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection.

Health Clinic

Health Clinic

Dr. Thomas M. Adams and project nurse Lillie Mae McCormick, pictured in 1937, administer a typhoid shot in the health clinic at the Flint River Farms Resettlement Community in Macon County.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF34- 051634-D [P&P] LOT 1541.

Wheat Field

Wheat Field

Project manager Amos Ward (left?) and Farm Security Administration borrower Simon Joiner inspect wheat in 1939 at the Flint River Farms Resettlement Community in Macon County. A variety of crops, including wheat, oats, cotton, pecans, and peaches were grown at the farms.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF33- 030398-M4 [P&P] LOT 1541.

Flint River Farms School

Flint River Farms School

Students, pictured in 1939, gather outside the schoolhouse at the Flint River Farms Resettlement Community in Macon County. A field of oats grows in front of the school.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF34- 051647-D [P&P] LOT 1541.

Elementary Schoolchildren

Elementary Schoolchildren

A classroom of first graders is pictured in 1939 at the Flint River Farms Resettlement Community in Macon County. The school opened to elementary-age children in 1938, and by 1946 it offered classes in all twelve grades.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF34- 051617-D [P&P] LOT 1541.

Home Economics Class

Home Economics Class

Evelyn M. Driver (center) instructs students in home economics and management in 1939 at the Flint River Farms Resettlement Community in Macon County.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF33- 030379-M3 [P&P] LOT 1541.

Farm House

Farm House

An original home from the Flint River Farms Resettlement Community, established in 1937 in Macon County, is pictured in 2006.

Courtesy of Robert Zabawa

Flint River Farms Marker

Flint River Farms Marker

A historical marker commemorating the Flint River Farms Resettlement Community in Macon County, erected by the Georgia Historical Society, was dedicated in 2005.

Courtesy of Tasha Hargrove

U-123

U-123

The German submarine U-123, under the command of Reinhard Hardegen, is pictured in February 1942 at its home base in Lorient, France. In early April the vessel entered Georgia's waters and sank three ships.

Photograph from German Federal Archive

Glynco Naval Air Station

Glynco Naval Air Station

Airships are pictured circa 1942 outside a hangar at Glynco Naval Air Station in Glynn County. The station's fixed-wing and antisubmarine aircraft were integral to defending Georgia's coast from German U-boat attacks during World War II.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, # gly109.

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Esso Baton Rouge

Esso Baton Rouge

The Esso Baton Rouge, an oil tanker, sank off the coast of St. Simons Island in April 1942 after being torpedoed by the German submarine U-123 during World War II.

Photograph from uboat.net

Airship Squadron in Brunswick, 1942

Airship Squadron in Brunswick, 1942

An airship Squadron at Glynco Naval Air Station near Brunswick, in Glynn County, circa 1942. These blimps were used to protect the Georgia coast from the threat of German U-boats during World War II.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, # gly106.

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Lugenia Burns Hope

Lugenia Burns Hope

Lugenia Burns Hope was a prominent community organizer and civil rights activist, at both local and national levels, in the first half of the twentieth century. In 1908 she founded the Neighborhood Union to provide assistance to Atlanta's impoverished Black neighborhoods, and in 1932 she became the first vice president of the Atlanta chapter of the NAACP.

Courtesy of Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives, Neighborhood Union Collection..

Hope Family

Hope Family

John and Lugenia Burns Hope, pictured with their sons, John and Edward, were leaders in Atlanta's Black community during the early 1900s. John Hope served as president of both Morehouse College and Atlanta University, and Lugenia Burns Hope founded Atlanta's Neighborhood Union.

Neighborhood House

Neighborhood House

The Neighborhood Union was formed in 1908 by Lugenia Burns Hope and other community organizers to combat social decay in Atlanta's Black neighborhoods. The Neighborhood Union offered assistance with housing, education, and medical care, and provided recreational opportunities.

Courtesy of Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives, Neighborhood Union Collection..

Mississippi Flood, 1927

Mississippi Flood, 1927

The Great Flood of 1927 devastated portions of Mississippi (pictured), Arkansas, and Louisiana. Atlanta activist Lugenia Burns Hope was appointed to U.S. president Herbert Hoover's Colored Advisory Commission, which investigated acts of racial discrimination during flood relief efforts.

Courtesy of Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives, Neighborhood Union Collection..

International Council of Women of the Darker Races

International Council of Women of the Darker Races

Lugenia Burns Hope (back row, far right) is pictured with members of the International Council of Women of the Darker Races, circa 1930. Hope later served as assistant to Mary McLeod Bethune (front row, far right), director of Negro Affairs for the National Youth Administration. Also pictured are Marion Wilkinson (front row, far left) and Mrs. Moton (back row, middle).

Courtesy of Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives, Neighborhood Union Collection..

Etowah Mounds

Etowah Mounds

The Etowah Mounds in Bartow County include one of the largest Indian mounds in North America. The mounds, constructed during the Mississippian Period, served as platforms for public buildings in a town that occupied the site from around 1100 until the 1600s.

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle, a stone effigy built by Native Americans during the Woodland Period, circa A.D. 200, is located in Putnam County. The structure, made of quartz cobbles, measures 102 feet across the wings.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Indian Projectile Points

Indian Projectile Points

Commonly known as "arrowheads," millions of projectile points have been found throughout Georgia. These projectile points were made by Creek Indians in middle Georgia.

Courtesy of Forestry Images. Photograph by Billy Humphries, Forest Resource Consultants, Inc.

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

A drawing from Lambert A. Wilmer's Life, Travels and Adventures of Ferdinand de Soto, Discoverer of the Mississippi (1859) depicts Hernando de Soto and his men crossing the Chattahoochee River. The accidental introduction of European diseases by explorers destroyed many of the civilizations along the river's banks.

Courtesy of Florida State Archives, Photographic Collection.

Georgia Trustees

Georgia Trustees

This oil painting by William Verelst shows the founders of Georgia, the Georgia Trustees, and a delegation of Georgia Indians in July 1734. One year later the Trustees persuaded the British government to support a ban on slavery in Georgia.

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Button Gwinnett, George Walton, and Lyman Hall were the three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence.

Battle of Kettle Creek

Battle of Kettle Creek

This sketch, likely a small portion of a larger work, depicts the Battle of Kettle Creek, which took place in Wilkes County on February 14, 1779, during the Revolutionary War. The original caption reads: "Engagement between the Whigs and Tories."

Courtesy of Kettle Creek Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution

Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney

The inventor of the cotton gin, Eli Whitney lived in Georgia for just a year, on Catharine Greene's Mulberry Grove plantation near Savannah. After learning of the difficulty planters had with separating seeds from fibers in upland, or "short-staple," cotton, he set out to create a machine that could perform such a task more efficiently. His invention, the cotton gin, revolutionized the southern economy.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College, founded in Macon in 1836, was the first college in the world to grant degrees to women. Pictured is the Candler Alumnae Building, which was originally used as a library. Today the building houses the offices of Alumnae Affairs, Institutional Advancement, and Development.

Courtesy of Wesleyan College

Cherokee Trail of Tears

Cherokee Trail of Tears

In his 1942 painting Cherokee Trail of Tears, Robert Lindneux depicts the forced journey of the Cherokees in 1838 to present-day Oklahoma.

Courtesy of Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

Secession Ordinance

Secession Ordinance

On January 21, 1861, the ordinance of secession was publicly signed in a ceremony by Georgia politicians. Two days earlier, delegates to a convention in Milledgeville voted 208 to 89 for the state to secede from the Union.

Robert Toombs

Robert Toombs

Wilkes County native Robert Toombs, pictured circa 1865, served briefly as the Confederate government's secretary of state and as a brigadier general during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Andersonville Prison

Andersonville Prison

Union prisoners of war are pictured at the Andersonville Prison in Macon County on August 17, 1864. Malnutrition and poor sanitary conditions at the camp led to the deaths of nearly 13,000 of Andersonville's 45,000 prisoners, the highest mortality rate of any Civil War prison.

Courtesy of Civil War Treasures, New-York Historical Society

Freedmen’s Bureau

Freedmen’s Bureau

An 1868 sketch by A. R. Waud illustrates the difficulties faced by the Freedmen's Bureau, caught between white planters on one side (left) and formerly enslaved African Americans on the other (right). The bureau was established in 1865 after Union general William T. Sherman issued his Field Order No. 15, which called for the resettlement of freedpeople on confiscated lands.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Henry W. Grady

Henry W. Grady

With his New South platform, Henry W. Grady advocated unity and trust between the North and South and helped to spur northern investment in Atlanta industries.

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers, pictured in 1910, harvest cotton in Randolph County. Theoretically beneficial to both laborers and landowners, the sharecropping system typically left workers in deep debt to their landlords and creditors from one harvest season to the next.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #ran218-82.

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Thomas E. Watson

Thomas E. Watson

In 1892 Georgia politics was shaken by the arrival of the Populist Party. Led by Thomas E. Watson of McDuffie County, this new party mainly appealed to white farmers, many of whom had been impoverished by debt and low cotton prices in the 1880s and 1890s. The Populists also attempted to win the support of Black farmers away from the Republican Party.

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang! (1932) is a memoir by Robert Elliott Burns detailing his two escapes from the Georgia chain gang. The book describes the brutality and harsh conditions of the Georgia prison system during the 1920s. This book cover is from the 1997 reprint by the University of Georgia Press.

Boll Weevil Dusting

Boll Weevil Dusting

A cotton farmer applies insecticide to combat boll weevils using a mule-drawn duster, circa 1920. The boll weevil devastated Georgia's cotton crops from 1915 into the 1920s. The insect was finally eradicated from the state in the early 1990s.

Courtesy of Agricultural Research Service. Photograph by Rob Flynn

Roosevelts in Atlanta

Roosevelts in Atlanta

U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, visit Atlanta in 1935, during the Great Depression. From left: Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt, U.S. senator Walter F. George, and U.S. senator Richard B. Russell Jr.

Ben Epps

Ben Epps

Georgia aviation pioneer Ben Epps is pictured with his first airplane outside his garage in Athens, 1907.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
clr176-83.

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Fort Benning

Fort Benning

U.S. soldiers, pictured in the spring of 1942, undergo training at Fort Benning in Columbus. During World War II Fort Benning was the largest infantry training post in the world.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Segregation Protest

Segregation Protest

Students protest segregation at the state capitol building in Atlanta on February 1, 1962. The passage of the federal Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965 ended legal segregation across the nation.

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Reporters gather at Atlanta's city hall on August 30, 1961, the day that the city's schools were officially integrated. The recommendations of the Sibley Commission to the state legislature in 1960 contributed to the desegregation of schools across Georgia.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection.

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes, the first Black students to enroll at the University of Georgia, are pictured here at the end of their first day on campus in January 1961.

Albany Movement

Albany Movement

Martin Luther King Jr. (second from right) and Ralph David Abernathy (third from right) pray during their arrest in Albany on July 27, 1962. William G. Anderson, the president of the Albany Movement, asked King and Abernathy to help with efforts to desegregate the city.

Carl Sanders

Carl Sanders

Augusta native Carl Sanders, elected governor of Georgia in 1962, brought the state into compliance with federal civil rights law during his single term in office.

Lester Maddox, 1964

Lester Maddox, 1964

In 1966 Lester Maddox defeated former governor Ellis Arnall in the Democratic gubernatorial primary in a major political upset. Subsequently, as a result of a close race between Maddox and Republican Bo Callaway, the General Assembly chose Maddox as governor.

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

U.S. president Jimmy Carter (right) meets with Hamilton Jordan in the Oval Office of the White House in 1977. Jordan served as Carter's chief of staff from 1977 to 1980.

Olympics Closing Ceremony

Olympics Closing Ceremony

The closing ceremony of the Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta took place on August 4, 1996. During the games around 2 million visitors to Georgia watched more than 10,000 athletes compete in twenty-six different sports. After the games ended, Olympic Stadium was refitted as Turner Field, home of the Atlanta Braves baseball team from 1997-2016, and later redeveloped as Georgia State University's Center Parc Stadium.

Courtesy of International Olympic Committee, Olympic Museum Collections, Photograph by Giulio Locatelli.

Peanut Farming

Peanut Farming

Georgia farmers lead the United States in peanut production, raising approximately 45 percent of the nation's total harvest. Grown in most south Georgia counties, peanuts are the official state crop.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Sonny Perdue

Sonny Perdue

Georgia governor Sonny Perdue speaks in 2005 at the annual Governor's Awards in the Humanities ceremony in Atlanta. Perdue served as governor from 2003 to 2011.

Photograph by Allison Shirreffs

Latino Workers

Latino Workers

Latino workers plant loblolly pine seedlings in 1999 near Bremen, in Haralson County. Latino immigrants came to Georgia in large numbers during the 1980s and 1990s to work in the agriculture, construction, carpet, and poultry processing industries.

St. Simons Tourists

St. Simons Tourists

Tourists on St. Simons Island gather outside one of the island's many shops. The island suffered an economic depression at the end of the cotton era in the 1830s, but its fortunes reversed with the arrival of the timber industry in the 1870s. Today St. Simons enjoys a strong tourist industry.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia.

Civilian Conservation Corps

Civilian Conservation Corps

Civilian Conservation Corps members assigned to Camp Meriwether, in Meriwether County, are pictured in 1934. The camp was located near Warm Springs, where U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt, who instituted the CCC, came for polio treatments.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ccc071.

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Work Detail, Civilian Conservation Corps

Work Detail, Civilian Conservation Corps

A Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) work detail group is shown in Reidsville (Tattnall County) in 1935. During the Great Depression, New Deal programs like the CCC helped put thousands of Georgians back to work.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ccc048.

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Lake Rutledge

Lake Rutledge

The spillway and dam at Lake Rutledge in Morgan County, pictured in 1935, was constructed by a Civilian Conservation Corps company.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #ccc019.

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CCC Barracks

CCC Barracks

Civilian Conservation Corps barracks are pictured circa 1935 at Vogel State Park, near Blairsville in Union County. During the 1930s the CCC built cabins and trails at state parks around Georgia that are still in use today.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ccc060.

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CCC at Kennesaw Mountain

CCC at Kennesaw Mountain

A Civilian Conservation Corps camp is pictured in 1939 from the top of Kennesaw Mountain, in Cobb County. The CCC performed historic preservation work at both the Kennesaw Mountain and Chickamauga battlefields during the 1930s.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ccc051b.

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Parade Vehicle

Parade Vehicle

Riding in a car decorated as a float, representatives of the Georgia Young People Suffrage Association participate in a 1920 parade.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
geo088.

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Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson

Many of the major Progressive era reforms were enacted at the federal level by Congress, under the leadership of U.S. presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson (pictured circa 1920).

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois is Georgia's most distinguished example of a progressive intellectual who wed social science to the analysis of public issues. In 1910 he founded the NAACP, one of the most significant products of the Progressive era.

Image from Univeristy of Massachusetts Amherst, Special Collections and University Archives, W. E. B. Du Bois Papers.

Nellie Peters Black

Nellie Peters Black

Nellie Peters Black served three terms as president of the Georgia Federation of Women's Clubs. She led Georgia women in supporting U.S. president Woodrow Wilson's thrift and conservation campaigns during the Progressive era.

Hoke Smith

Hoke Smith

Governor Hoke Smith is perhaps the figure most associated with Progressive era reform in the state. During his governorship reforms were seen in education and railroad regulation; the convict lease system was abolished; and a major public health project, a state sanatorium for tuberculosis patients, was undertaken.

Segregated Depot

Segregated Depot

A postcard depicts passengers waiting outside a segregated train depot in Suwanee (Gwinnett County), circa 1915.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
gwn120.

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William J. Northen

William J. Northen

During his tenure as governor, from 1890 to 1894, William J. Northen limited the workday for railroad employees to thirteen hours and granted the Georgia Railroad Commission power to regulate telegraph companies. He also advanced agricultural inspection and education.

Image from Wikimedia Commons

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Street Improvement

Street Improvement

Workers prepare Broad Street in LaGrange for paving, circa 1900. The men on the left are installing water and sewer lines.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
trp071.

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1906 Gubernatorial Campaign

1906 Gubernatorial Campaign

Residents of Fitzgerald in Ben Hill County gather for a political rally for Hoke Smith, owner of the Atlanta Journal, during the gubernatorial race of 1906. Smith, the Democratic candidate, won the election over Clark Howell, his rival publisher at the Atlanta Constitution.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ben121.

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Clay County School

Clay County School

The student body at the first public school in Clay County poses for a photograph in 1905. Built in 1903, the school was located on Jefferson Street in Fort Gaines and was destroyed by fire in 1927.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
cly018.

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Hancock Rosenwald School

Hancock Rosenwald School

This Rosenwald School in Hancock County was one of 242 such schools built in Georgia. Although education reform was a priority for the state during the Progressive era, reform for Black schools was often left to northern philanthropic organizations, such as the Rosenwald Fund.

From Preface to Peasantry: A Tale of Two Black Belt Counties, by A. F. Raper

Tuberculosis Sanatorium

Tuberculosis Sanatorium

In 1911 the state of Georgia opened a public sanatorium in Banks County for the treatment of tuberculosis. The sanatorium was the state's most ambitious health project up to that time, and marked a new interest in public health, a product of the Progressive era.

From History of Public Health in Georgia, 1733-1950, by T. F. Abercrombie

Child Worker

Child Worker

In this 1913 photograph by Lewis Hine, a young girl works at a machine at the Walker County Hosiery Mills in LaFayette.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Convict Labor

Convict Labor

Convicts are shown circa 1909 working on one of the first graded roads in Rockdale County. The convict lease system was abolished in 1908, as one of many reforms enacted during the Progressive era, but soon chain gangs took the place of convict leasing.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
roc063.

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Georgia and Alabama Railroad

Georgia and Alabama Railroad

The Georgia and Alabama Railroad depot in Fitzgerald is pictured around the turn of the twentieth century. Railroad regulation was one of the major reforms of the Progressive era.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, # ben326.

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Archibald Butt

Archibald Butt

After beginning a career in journalism, Augusta native Archibald Butt found success in the army, eventually attaining the rank of major. He is perhaps best known for his role as military aide to U.S. presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Butt Memorial Bridge

Butt Memorial Bridge

The Butt Memorial Bridge in downtown Augusta spans the Augusta Canal. Dedicated in 1914, the bridge was named for Archibald Butt, an Augusta native who was the military aide to U.S. president William Howard Taft at the time of his death aboard the Titanic. The bridge is the only Titanic memorial in Georgia.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Historic Postcard Collection, #hpc0814.

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William Taft and Archibald Butt

William Taft and Archibald Butt

U.S. president William Howard Taft (front row, second from left) attends a baseball game in 1910. Seated directly behind Taft is Augusta native Archibald Butt, who served as the president's military aide from 1909 until his death aboard the Titanic in 1912.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
rab289.

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Butt Memorial Bridge Dedication

Butt Memorial Bridge Dedication

U.S. president William Howard Taft (far right) presides at the April 1914 dedication of the Butt Memorial Bridge over the Augusta Canal between Walton Way and Green Street in downtown Augusta. The bridge was named in honor of Archibald Butt, military aide to Taft, who died during the sinking of the Titanic.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ric080.

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Tenant Farmhouse

Tenant Farmhouse

A boy stands on the porch of a tenant farmhouse in Troup County, circa 1933. The typical Georgia farm family of this period had no electricity, no running water, and no indoor privies.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
trp186.

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Sharecropping Family, Macon County

Sharecropping Family, Macon County

Cotton sharecropper family in Macon County, 1937. The Great Depression did not end in Georgia until the United States entered World War II in 1941.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photograph by Dorothea Lange, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF34-017922-C.

Sharecroppers, Greene County

Sharecroppers, Greene County

Cotton sharecroppers in Greene County, 1937. The sociologist Arthur F. Raper studied the county in the 1930s and found that soil depletion, low cotton prices, and boll weevil attacks were causing a massive outmigration of farmers.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photograph by Dorothea Lange, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection, #LC-USF34-T01-017335-C.

Cotton Bales on Loading Dock

Cotton Bales on Loading Dock

Bales of cotton on one of Savannah's docks are being loaded for shipment, circa 1930. During the Great Depression Savannah's residents were protected economically by the city's pivotal role as a seaport and exporter.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ctm148.

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Depression-Era Tourist Camp

Depression-Era Tourist Camp