Updated Recently

Christian Science

Christian Science

1 week ago
Alice Walker

Alice Walker

1 week ago
Etowah Mounds

Etowah Mounds

1 week ago

Explore Georgia’s rich music history

From blues and soul to classical and country—our Spotify playlists feature 130+ songs written and performed by Georgians.

Confederate Earthwork

Confederate Earthwork

The remains of a Confederate earthwork, used during the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in June 1864. In the1930s archaeologist Charles Fairbanks, in one of the earliest Civil War excavations, documented the earthworks on top of Kennesaw Mountain in Cobb County.

Courtesy of Garrett W. Silliman

Civil War Bullets

Civil War Bullets

Bullets recovered during archaeological excavations at the Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield site in Cobb County include standard federal issue .58 caliber Minie-type bullets (top row), a case-shot (bottom left), and a Williams cleaner bullet (bottom right). Primary documents indicate that these artifacts were recovered from the site of a Union army bivouac.

Courtesy of Garrett W. Silliman

Etowah Mounds

Etowah Mounds

The Etowah Mounds in Bartow County include one of the largest Indian mounds in North America. The mounds, constructed during the Mississippian Period, served as platforms for public buildings in a town that occupied the site from around 1100 until the 1600s.

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle, a stone effigy built by Native Americans during the Woodland Period, circa A.D. 200, is located in Putnam County. The structure, made of quartz cobbles, measures 102 feet across the wings.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Indian Projectile Points

Indian Projectile Points

Commonly known as "arrowheads," millions of projectile points have been found throughout Georgia. These projectile points were made by Creek Indians in middle Georgia.

Courtesy of Forestry Images. Photograph by Billy Humphries, Forest Resource Consultants, Inc.

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

A drawing from Lambert A. Wilmer's Life, Travels and Adventures of Ferdinand de Soto, Discoverer of the Mississippi (1859) depicts Hernando de Soto and his men crossing the Chattahoochee River. The accidental introduction of European diseases by explorers destroyed many of the civilizations along the river's banks.

Courtesy of Florida State Archives, Photographic Collection.

Georgia Trustees

Georgia Trustees

This oil painting by William Verelst shows the founders of Georgia, the Georgia Trustees, and a delegation of Georgia Indians in July 1734. One year later the Trustees persuaded the British government to support a ban on slavery in Georgia.

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Button Gwinnett, George Walton, and Lyman Hall were the three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence.

Battle of Kettle Creek

Battle of Kettle Creek

This sketch, likely a small portion of a larger work, depicts the Battle of Kettle Creek, which took place in Wilkes County on February 14, 1779, during the Revolutionary War. The original caption reads: "Engagement between the Whigs and Tories."

Courtesy of Kettle Creek Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution

Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney

The inventor of the cotton gin, Eli Whitney lived in Georgia for just a year, on Catharine Greene's Mulberry Grove plantation near Savannah. After learning of the difficulty planters had with separating seeds from fibers in upland, or "short-staple," cotton, he set out to create a machine that could perform such a task more efficiently. His invention, the cotton gin, revolutionized the southern economy.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College, founded in Macon in 1836, was the first college in the world to grant degrees to women. Pictured is the Candler Alumnae Building, which was originally used as a library. Today the building houses the offices of Alumnae Affairs, Institutional Advancement, and Development.

Courtesy of Wesleyan College

Cherokee Trail of Tears

Cherokee Trail of Tears

In his 1942 painting Cherokee Trail of Tears, Robert Lindneux depicts the forced journey of the Cherokees in 1838 to present-day Oklahoma.

Courtesy of Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

Secession Ordinance

Secession Ordinance

On January 21, 1861, the ordinance of secession was publicly signed in a ceremony by Georgia politicians. Two days earlier, delegates to a convention in Milledgeville voted 208 to 89 for the state to secede from the Union.

Robert Toombs

Robert Toombs

Wilkes County native Robert Toombs, pictured circa 1865, served briefly as the Confederate government's secretary of state and as a brigadier general during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Andersonville Prison

Andersonville Prison

Union prisoners of war are pictured at the Andersonville Prison in Macon County on August 17, 1864. Malnutrition and poor sanitary conditions at the camp led to the deaths of nearly 13,000 of Andersonville's 45,000 prisoners, the highest mortality rate of any Civil War prison.

Courtesy of Civil War Treasures, New-York Historical Society

Freedmen’s Bureau

Freedmen’s Bureau

An 1868 sketch by A. R. Waud illustrates the difficulties faced by the Freedmen's Bureau, caught between white planters on one side (left) and formerly enslaved African Americans on the other (right). The bureau was established in 1865 after Union general William T. Sherman issued his Field Order No. 15, which called for the resettlement of freedpeople on confiscated lands.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Henry W. Grady

Henry W. Grady

With his New South platform, Henry W. Grady advocated unity and trust between the North and South and helped to spur northern investment in Atlanta industries.

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers, pictured in 1910, harvest cotton in Randolph County. Theoretically beneficial to both laborers and landowners, the sharecropping system typically left workers in deep debt to their landlords and creditors from one harvest season to the next.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #ran218-82.

View on partner site

Thomas E. Watson

Thomas E. Watson

In 1892 Georgia politics was shaken by the arrival of the Populist Party. Led by Thomas E. Watson of McDuffie County, this new party mainly appealed to white farmers, many of whom had been impoverished by debt and low cotton prices in the 1880s and 1890s. The Populists also attempted to win the support of Black farmers away from the Republican Party.

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang! (1932) is a memoir by Robert Elliott Burns detailing his two escapes from the Georgia chain gang. The book describes the brutality and harsh conditions of the Georgia prison system during the 1920s. This book cover is from the 1997 reprint by the University of Georgia Press.

Boll Weevil Dusting

Boll Weevil Dusting

A cotton farmer applies insecticide to combat boll weevils using a mule-drawn duster, circa 1920. The boll weevil devastated Georgia's cotton crops from 1915 into the 1920s. The insect was finally eradicated from the state in the early 1990s.

Courtesy of Agricultural Research Service. Photograph by Rob Flynn

Roosevelts in Atlanta

Roosevelts in Atlanta

U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, visit Atlanta in 1935, during the Great Depression. From left: Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt, U.S. senator Walter F. George, and U.S. senator Richard B. Russell Jr.

Ben Epps

Ben Epps

Georgia aviation pioneer Ben Epps is pictured with his first airplane outside his garage in Athens, 1907.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
clr176-83.

View on partner site

Fort Benning

Fort Benning

U.S. soldiers, pictured in the spring of 1942, undergo training at Fort Benning in Columbus. During World War II Fort Benning was the largest infantry training post in the world.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Segregation Protest

Segregation Protest

Students protest segregation at the state capitol building in Atlanta on February 1, 1962. The passage of the federal Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965 ended legal segregation across the nation.

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Reporters gather at Atlanta's city hall on August 30, 1961, the day that the city's schools were officially integrated. The recommendations of the Sibley Commission to the state legislature in 1960 contributed to the desegregation of schools across Georgia.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection.

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes, the first Black students to enroll at the University of Georgia, are pictured here at the end of their first day on campus in January 1961.

Albany Movement

Albany Movement

Martin Luther King Jr. (second from right) and Ralph David Abernathy (third from right) pray during their arrest in Albany on July 27, 1962. William G. Anderson, the president of the Albany Movement, asked King and Abernathy to help with efforts to desegregate the city.

Carl Sanders

Carl Sanders

Augusta native Carl Sanders, elected governor of Georgia in 1962, brought the state into compliance with federal civil rights law during his single term in office.

Lester Maddox, 1964

Lester Maddox, 1964

In 1966 Lester Maddox defeated former governor Ellis Arnall in the Democratic gubernatorial primary in a major political upset. Subsequently, as a result of a close race between Maddox and Republican Bo Callaway, the General Assembly chose Maddox as governor.

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

U.S. president Jimmy Carter (right) meets with Hamilton Jordan in the Oval Office of the White House in 1977. Jordan served as Carter's chief of staff from 1977 to 1980.

Olympics Closing Ceremony

Olympics Closing Ceremony

The closing ceremony of the Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta took place on August 4, 1996. During the games around 2 million visitors to Georgia watched more than 10,000 athletes compete in twenty-six different sports. After the games ended, Olympic Stadium was refitted as Turner Field, home of the Atlanta Braves baseball team from 1997-2016, and later redeveloped as Georgia State University's Center Parc Stadium.

Courtesy of International Olympic Committee, Olympic Museum Collections, Photograph by Giulio Locatelli.

Peanut Farming

Peanut Farming

Georgia farmers lead the United States in peanut production, raising approximately 45 percent of the nation's total harvest. Grown in most south Georgia counties, peanuts are the official state crop.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Sonny Perdue

Sonny Perdue

Georgia governor Sonny Perdue speaks in 2005 at the annual Governor's Awards in the Humanities ceremony in Atlanta. Perdue served as governor from 2003 to 2011.

Photograph by Allison Shirreffs

Latino Workers

Latino Workers

Latino workers plant loblolly pine seedlings in 1999 near Bremen, in Haralson County. Latino immigrants came to Georgia in large numbers during the 1980s and 1990s to work in the agriculture, construction, carpet, and poultry processing industries.

St. Simons Tourists

St. Simons Tourists

Tourists on St. Simons Island gather outside one of the island's many shops. The island suffered an economic depression at the end of the cotton era in the 1830s, but its fortunes reversed with the arrival of the timber industry in the 1870s. Today St. Simons enjoys a strong tourist industry.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia.

Shotgun Houses

Shotgun Houses

Unrestored shotgun houses line a street in Macon. The shotgun, a rectangular house type that is one room wide and two to four rooms deep, may have developed from a West African architectural tradition.

Courtesy of Elizabeth Lyon

Colonoware Pitcher

Colonoware Pitcher

Colonoware, a form of earthenware pottery, was made by African Americans on plantations in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Produced circa 1740, this pitcher was found during an exacavation in Charleston, South Carolina, during the late 1990s.

Courtesy of New South Associates

Savannah-Ogeechee Canal

Savannah-Ogeechee-Canal_002

The Savannah-Ogeechee Canal, pictured circa 1888, was completed by enslaved laborers in 1829.

Courtesy of Georgia Historical Society, James S. Silva family papers, 1888-1953, #MS 2126-VM01-04 pg072.

View on partner site

Slave Quarters

Slave Quarters

Slave quarters, pictured in 1936, stand at Liberty Hall in Taliaferro County, the homeplace of Georgia governor Alexander Stephens. African American structures on Georgia plantations were generally rectangular in shape, as opposed to the square forms preferred by Europeans.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Historic American Buildings Survey.

Colonoware Jar

Colonoware Jar

This colonoware jar, uncovered in South Carolina in the 1990s, dates to the mid-eighteenth century. Colonoware was made by African Americans on coastal plantations and has been found on several Georgia sites.

Courtesy of New South Associates

Ninevian Pipe

Ninevian Pipe

Dating to the 1850s, this Ninevian pipe was uncovered during an archaeological excavation conducted between 1989 and 1991 at the Springfield site near Augusta. The Springfield village was populated by free Blacks before the end of slavery in 1865.

Courtesy of New South Associates

Wall Trench

Wall Trench

The outline of a wall trench was uncovered by archaeologists in 2000 at the Silk Hope Plantation, an eighteenth-century rice plantation in Bryan County. The markings in black show the locations of a wall trench and post features that form a slave dwelling, and the red outline shows the presence of pit features that were used for storage and other functions.

Courtesy of Brockington and Associates

Singer-Moye Mounds

Singer-Moye Mounds

The excavation of the Singer-Moye Mounds in Stewart County has revealed the buried foundations of Indian buildings that were destroyed and abandoned more than 600 years ago. Thousands of ceramics fragments and animal bones have also been recovered.

Photograph by Elisabeth Hughes, New Georgia Encyclopedia

St. Catherines Island

St. Catherines Island

St. Catherines Island, located in Liberty County, is one of the barrier islands lining the coast of Georgia. The privately owned island, a National Historic Landmark, is about ten miles long and approximately one to three miles wide. From the 1590s to the 1680s a Spanish mission, Santa Catalina de Guale, was located on the island (at that time part of the Spanish colony La Florida).

Photograph by Jason D. Williams

Lamar Period Pottery

Lamar Period Pottery

An example of Mississippian Lamar pottery, on display at the Ocmulgee Mounds Visitor Center in Macon.

Courtesy of Robert Foxworth

Ocmulgee National Historical Park

Ocmulgee National Historical Park

The earthen mounds at the Ocmulgee National Historical Park in Macon are the remains of a native culture that lived at the site between A.D. 800 and 1100, during the Early Mississippian period.

Photograph from National Park Service

Irene Mounds

Irene Mounds

Excavation of the Irene mounds site, near Savannah, was led by several important archaeologists, especially Joseph R. Caldwell, who is pictured with an excavation team. Three different shell layers are visible in the earth behind the researchers.

Reprinted by permission of the Coastal Georgia Archaeological Society

Irene Mounds

Irene Mounds

A square building at the Irene mounds site contained many burials. Archaeologists excavated skeletal remains by constructing crates in sections to fit precisely over the burial; each section was then shimmied down and leveled. Jewelry and pottery were often found buried with the human remains.

Reprinted by permission of the Coastal Georgia Archaeological Society

Irene Mounds

Irene Mounds

A group of African American women (pictured in December 1937) helped to excavate the Irene mounds site. The split oak basket, on the right, was made in Savannah especially for this project. The woman in the foreground is smoking a pipe.

Reprinted by permission of the Coastal Georgia Archaeological Society

Sapelo Shell Ring

Sapelo Shell Ring

A portion of the largest shell ring on Sapelo Island was excavated in 1950. The trench, cut into the ring by archaeologists, reveals white flecks of shell left behind by the hunter-gatherers who lived on the island during the Late Archaic Period, 5,000 to 3,000 years ago.

Courtesy of Victor D. Thompson

Shell Ring Sites

Shell Ring Sites

Shell rings, or middens, are found at various locations along the southeastern coast of the United States. Composed of shell, bone, artifact, and soil deposits, the rings contain a wealth of information about the lifeways of coastal societies during the Late Archaic period.

Courtesy of Victor D. Thompson

Sapelo Shell Ring

Sapelo Shell Ring

An archaeologist stands beside Shell Ring No. 1 on Sapelo Island. The shell rings, circular or semicircular in shape, are too large to be shown in their entirety by a single photograph.

Courtesy of Victor D. Thompson

Hernando de Soto

Hernando de Soto

Hernando de Soto was a Spanish-born explorer and conqueror who landed in present-day Tampa Bay, Florida, in 1539 and came to the Georgia area in 1540. Chroniclers of the expedition described the Coosa River valley in glowing terms.

Hernando de Soto and Crew

Hernando de Soto and Crew

An 1866 tobacco label depicts Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto and his crew being welcomed ashore by Native Americans. De Soto entered Georgia twice in 1540, encountering the Altamaha, Capachequi, Coosa, Ichisi, Ocute, Patofa, Toa, and Ulibahali chiefdoms during his travels in the area.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Fort Frederica National Monument

Fort Frederica National Monument

Georgia's Department of Natural Resources and the National Park Service join forces to offer an archaeological training program for teachers each summer at Fort Frederica National Monument on St. Simons Island. Students later return with their teachers to excavate a simulated colonial site.

Courtesy of Sea Island Company

Scouts Excavate Test Unit

Scouts Excavate Test Unit

Betsy Shirk, an archaeologist with the Department of Natural Resources, works with Boy Scouts and their leaders to examine excavated artifacts from a test unit on an archaeological site.

Courtesy of David Crass

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle

Located north of Eatonton in Putnam County, Rock Eagle is an Indian-made rock structure dating back to the Middle Woodland period (300 B.C. to A.D. 600).

Photograph by Brian McInturff

Etowah Indian Mounds

Etowah Indian Mounds

A path leading to two of the mounds at the Etowah Indian Mounds Historic Site. Located in Bartow County, the site is home to the second-largest Indian mound in North America, rises to a height of slightly more than 60 feet.

Photograph from Sharon Meier

Augusta Canal

Augusta Canal

A modern tourboat passes the Confederate Powder Works chimney in Augusta along the Augusta Canal. The Georgia Community Greenspace Program has worked to preserve the Augusta Canal as an important historic and archaeological site.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Clovis Points

Clovis Points

The Early Paleoindian subperiod is characterized by Clovis and related projectile point forms, relatively large lanceolate (lance-shaped) points with nearly parallel sides, slightly concave bases, and single or multiple basal flutes (channels) that rarely extend more than a third of the way up the body.

Courtesy of the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology

Spear Points

Spear Points

Stone projectile tips like these from the Woodland Period are referred to as Coosa points.

From Arrowhead and Spear Points in the Prehistoric Southeast: A Guide to Understanding Cultural Artifacts, by L. C. Culberson

Flint Projectile Points

Flint Projectile Points

Commonly referred to as "arrowheads," these flint projectile points from the Archaic Period would have been used as spear tips or knives.

Courtesy of Ocmulgee National Monument, National Park Service

Suwannee Points

Suwannee Points

The Middle Paleoindian subperiod features smaller unfluted lanceolate projectile points such as the Suwannee types, among others.

Courtesy of the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology

Sequoyah

Sequoyah

This hand-colored lithograph of Sequoyah (also called George Gist or George Guess), the legendary creator of the Cherokee syllabary, was made in 1833 after an oil portrait by Charles Bird King as part of a series depicting Native American leaders.

From The Indian Tribes of North America, by T. L. McKenney and J. Hall

Lamar Period Pottery

Lamar Period Pottery

Mississippian Lamar pottery is distinctive because of its unique stamping and shape.

Courtesy of Robert Foxworth

Ocmulgee National Monument

Ocmulgee National Monument

The chiefdom of Ichisi was located between modern Macon and Perry on the Ocmulgee River. The capital town was probably located at the present-day Lamar archaeological site, a part of Ocmulgee National Monument.

Riverside Etowah Indian Mound

Riverside Etowah Indian Mound

The Etowah mounds were built during the Lamar Period. Modern-day steps allow tourists to climb to the summit of the Etowah mounds.

Photograph by Muora

Nacoochee Mound

Nacoochee Mound

Although the original Late Prehistoric earthen platform mound has been completely excavated, a reconstruction of the Nacoochee Mound can be seen today on private property in the Nacoochee Valley.

Photograph by Martin LaBar

William McIntosh

William McIntosh

Charles Bird King's portrait of William McIntosh (ca. 1825). In 1825 McIntosh negotiated and signed the Treaty of Indian Springs, signing away all Creek lands in Georgia and thereby defying most of the reforms that he had encouraged and the laws that he had helped write.

Image from Archives and Rare Books Library, University of Cincinnati Libraries, McKenney and Hall: History of the Indian Tribes Collection.

Tomochichi

Tomochichi

As the principal mediator between the native population and the new English settlers during the first years of Georgia's settlement, Tomochichi (left) contributed much to the establishment of peaceful relations between the two groups and to the ultimate success of Georgia. His nephew, Toonahowi, is seated on the right in this engraving, circa 1734-35, by John Faber Jr.

De Luna Landing

De Luna Landing

A watercolor by Herbert Rudeen illustrates Tristan de Luna's historic landing at Pensacola Bay in August 1559. De Luna's failed plan to establish a Spanish presence along the lower Atlantic coast, the Gulf Coast, and the interior of the Southeast included the colonization of Ochuse (Florida), Coosa (Georgia), and Santa Elena (South Carolina).

Courtesy of Pensacola Historical Society

Pedro Menendez de Aviles

Pedro Menendez de Aviles

A 1791 engraving depicts Pedro Menendez de Aviles at about age fifty. Menendez de Aviles founded St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest European settlement in North America, in 1565, just before he explored the Georgia coastline.

From The Spanish Settlements within the Present Limits of the United States: Florida, 1562-1574, by W. Lowery

Weeden Island Period Pottery

Weeden Island Period Pottery

Drawings depict derived effigies with zoned incising found at the Davis Point excavation site at the Kolomoki Mounds. Weeden Island burial mounds are well known for the inclusion of elaborate animal effigy pots in large deposits.

From Excavations at Kolomoki, by W. H. Sears

Weeden Island Period Sherd

Weeden Island Period Sherd

A Weeden Island incised sherd found at the Kolomoki Mounds excavations is a variant of the zoned incised style (incised lines are used to delimit areas filled with other parallel incised lines).

From Excavations at Kolomoki, by W. H. Sears

Kolomoki Mounds

Kolomoki Mounds

The Kolomoki Mounds site in Early County is one of the largest prehistoric mound complexes in Georgia and includes at least eight mounds.

Courtesy of Kolomoki Mounds State Historic Park

Effigy Pipe

Effigy Pipe

During the Woodland Period some of the earliest peoples of the area we know today as Georgia developed wood crafts like this tobacco pipe, which reflects the importance of nature to indigenous Woodland cultures.

From Arrowhead and Spear Points in the Prehistoric Southeast: A Guide to Understanding Cultural Artifacts, by L. C. Culberson

Fluted Cumberland Point

Fluted Cumberland Point

The Middle Paleoindian subperiod features fluted or unfluted points with broad blades and constricted handle elements, which may include the Cumberland type. Fluted points (pictured) have a channel or flute running from the base of the point.

Courtesy of the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology

Fluted Dalton Points

Fluted Dalton Points

From the Late Paleoindian subperiod come Dalton and related point types, which are characterized by a lanceolate (lance-shaped) blade outline and a concave base ground on the lateral and basal margins, occasionally well thinned. Blade edges are frequently serrated and beveled.

Courtesy of the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology

Macon Plateau Fluted Point

Macon Plateau Fluted Point

Only one fluted point was found at Macon Plateau, in spite of a massive excavation effort. The fluted point, missing the forward one-third of its length, was of the Clovis type of these artifacts.

Courtesy of the University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology

Creek Indian Painting

Creek Indian Painting

This copy of a Creek "hieroglyphick painting" was made in the 1770s by Bernard Romans. Romans was a British surveyor and engineer who worked in Florida during the 1770s. He made many notes on the Creeks.

Chief Vann House

Chief Vann House

The home of Cherokee chief James Vann was located north of the Moravian Mission at Spring Place. Invited by Vann and other Cherokee leaders, the Moravians provided a school for Cherokee children and housed 114 students between 1804 and 1833.

Taloney Mission

Taloney Mission

The Taloney Mission (later Carmel Mission) was founded by the Georgia Presbyterians in Pickens County along Talking Rock Creek. The Presbyterians established and ran a number of mission schools throughout Georgia from 1817 to 1833. The remains of the Taloney Mission were photographed between 1930 and 1960.

Etowah Complicated Stamped Pottery

Etowah Complicated Stamped Pottery

This type of pottery originated in northwestern Georgia and is found in small quantities throughout the state. It is from the Middle Mississippian subperiod.

Courtesy of Mark Williams

Stallings Island Site Pottery

Stallings Island Site Pottery

Stallings Island, located in the Savannah River eight miles upstream from Augusta, is best known for its very early pottery, a technological development that predated the advent of farming in Georgia by several millennia. Pictured are sherds of the punctated fiber-tempered pottery, ca. 3,800-3,500 years ago. The sherd on top is actually 11 centimeters wide.

Courtesy of Kenneth E. Sassaman

Brewton Hill Complicated Stamped Pottery

Brewton Hill Complicated Stamped Pottery

Brewton Hill is a type of Swift Creek Complicated Stamped pottery from Chatham County, Georgia. This type of pottery is from the Middle Woodland subperiod.

Courtesy of Mark Williams

Swift Creek Pottery

Swift Creek Pottery

Illustrations of Early (top) and Late (bottom) Swift Creek Complicated Stamped pottery.

Courtesy of Kennesaw State University

King Site Map

King Site Map

The King site in Floyd County covers a little more than five acres and is bounded by a defensive ditch and palisade. It was first occupied at some time during the first half of the sixteenth century.

Courtesy of David Hally

Natchez Indian Warrior

Natchez Indian Warrior

A Louisiana Natchez warrior of the Mississippian Period is illustrated with typical weapons also used by Georgia Indians.

Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives

Mississippian Earthlodge

Mississippian Earthlodge

Photograph of ceremonial earthlodge which has been reconstructed and is today part of the Ocmulgee National Monument in Macon, Georgia.

Image from Ken Lund

View on source site

Etowah Mounds

Etowah Mounds

The Etowah Mounds, located near Cartersville, are (left to right) Mound C, Mound B, and Mound A. Mound A, a temple mound, is the tallest structure in the area and affords an impressive view of the Etowah River valley. The top of the mound is about an acre in size.

Courtesy of Adam King

Etowah Indian Figures

Etowah Indian Figures

Archaeological excavation, carried out intermittently at the Etowah mound site for more than 100 years, has unearthed artifacts such as these figures, which have provided much information about life in the Mississippian Period.

Photograph from Wikimedia

Swift Creek Culture

Swift Creek Culture

Swift Creek pottery is noted for its distinctive decoration. Complex curvilinear patterns were first carved into a wooden paddle, which was used to stamp the design into the soft clay walls of the pottery before it was fired.

Courtesy of Kennesaw State University

Swift Creek Pottery Fragments

Swift Creek Pottery Fragments

Given the lengthy period during which this pottery was popular, it is unlikely that the term "Swift Creek archaeological culture" refers to only one group of people. Probably several cultural groups shared this particular pottery style.

Courtesy of Kennesaw State University

Cane Island Site

Cane Island Site

In 1978 and 1979 the University of Georgia's Department of Anthropology excavated portions of the Cane Island archaeological site before it was flooded. It now lies beneath Lake Oconee in Greene County, Georgia.

Courtesy of W. Dean Wood

Oconee River

Oconee River

Cane Island, the site of one of the earliest Native American farming villages in Georgia, was located in present-day Greene County along a shallow portion of the Oconee River known as Long Shoals. Wild plants and animals around the river likely supplied most of the food for the Cane Island residents.

Courtesy of W. Dean Wood

Sara’s Ridge

Sara’s Ridge

An illustration of what Sara's Ridge probably looked like during the Middle Archaic Period. The woman in the foreground is cooking with soapstone slabs, while hunters carry a deer toward racks where fish are hung over a fire.

From Beneath These Waters, by S. Kane and R. Keeton

Upper Savannah River

Upper Savannah River

Archaeologists excavated a prehistoric Indian village in Rucker's Bottom near the Savannah River about 500 years after the civilization's height.

Oglethorpe with Creek Indians

Oglethorpe with Creek Indians

The Creek Indians meet with James Oglethorpe. By the time Oglethorpe and his Georgia colonists arrived in 1733, relations between the Creeks and the English were already well established and centered mainly on trade.

Etowah Indian Mounds

Etowah Indian Mounds

Modern-day steps lead to the summit of one of the Indian mounds at the Etowah site.

Courtesy of Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia State Parks.

Treaty of Fort Jackson

Treaty of Fort Jackson

A civil war between the United States and the Creeks erupted in 1813. In a final battle in March 1814 at Horseshoe Bend in Alabama, General Andrew Jackson (left) directed the killing of 800 Creeks. The Red Stick War officially ended in August 1814 with the Treaty of Fort Jackson.

Image from the New York Public Library Digital Collections, The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Picture Collection.

View on source site

Creek Indians

Creek Indians

A brief conflict between the United States and Creeks in 1836 ended with U.S. troops, assisted by Georgia and Alabama militia, rounding up Creeks and forcibly sending them to Indian Territory (Oklahoma).

Reprinted by permission of The Granger Collection, New York

Kipahalgwa

Kipahalgwa

This watercolor portrait of "General" Kipahalgwa of the Yuchi Indians was painted by the German artist Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck around 1734. Kipahalgwa is depicted wearing an English-style shirt, leggings, and shoes.

Illustration by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck

Yuchi Queen and King

Yuchi Queen and King

Painter Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck identifies this couple as Senkaitschi, a Yuchi king, and his queen. The queen's blanket, which the artist describes as "a British blanket from Charles Town," offers evidence of trade with Europeans.

Illustration by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck

Yuchi Indians of Georgia

Yuchi Indians of Georgia

This illustration shows the Yuchi Indians of Georgia with popular adornments and accessories including: a) ring and pearl worn by some in the nose, b) corals, c) arrows and lines burned into the chest, and d) ladle made from a buffalo horn.

Illustrations by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck

Yuchi Indians of Georgia

Yuchi Indians of Georgia

Georgia's Yuchi Indians were one of many refugee tribes in the area during the eighteenth century. They eventually joined with the Lower Creek Indians. Here the Yuchi Indians are depicted in a war dance.

Illustration by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck

Yuchi Hunters

Yuchi Hunters

Yuchi Indians, depicted in traditional hunting clothing, also carry items acquired through trade with the English, notably the central figure's blanket and rifle.

Illustration by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck

Macon Trading Post Site

Macon Trading Post Site

In 1936 archaeologist Arthur R. Kelly located the remains of a fortified trading establishment in the midst of a Creek Indian archaeological site on the Ocmulgee National Monument near Macon.

Photograph by Darby Carl Sanders, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Macon Trading Post Site

Macon Trading Post Site

A view of the immediate area where the Macon Trading Post was located.

Photograph by Dsdugan / CC0

Etowah Indian Figures

Etowah Indian Figures

Archaeological excavation, carried out intermittently at the site for more than a hundred years, has unearthed artifacts such as these stone figures, which have provided much information life in the Mississippian Period.

Etowah River

Etowah River

The Etowah River, with headwaters near Dahlonega, flows west-southwest for 140 miles to Rome, where it forms the Coosa River when it joins the Oostanaula River.

Image from Kevin Trotman

View on source site

Town Creek Palisade

Town Creek Palisade

Defensive fortifications were built around some larger Indian towns. A reconstructed log palisade with bastions at the Town Creek site in North Carolina is similar to the one that used to circle the Etowah Mounds in north Georgia.

Courtesy of North Carolina Division of Archives and History

Indian War Clubs

Indian War Clubs

There were several types of war clubs during the Mississippian Period, some of the most common forms being (left to right): the stick with projection, globe-headed, atassa, atassa with globe head, paddle-shaped, staff, and stone tomahawk.

Drawing by Wayne Van Horne

Indian War Clubs

Indian War Clubs

Chiefs and warriors possessed ceremonial forms of war clubs that incorporated symbols of the Sun and Thunder deities and served as markers of their ceremonial status, including (left to right): mace, monolithic tomahawk, stone sword, ceremonial tomahawk head.

Drawing by Wayne Van Horne

Kolomoki Mounds

Kolomoki Mounds

Archaeologists now recognize that the main occupation of the Kolomoki Mounds site dates to the Woodland Period (1000 B.C.-A.D. 900).

Kolomoki Mounds Artifact

Kolomoki Mounds Artifact

Ceramic artifacts were found during excavations of the Kolomoki Mounds in Early County.

Photograph by Bubba73, Wikimedia Commons

Spanish Mission Sites in Georgia

Spanish Mission Sites in Georgia

Courtesy of John Worth