Harrison Berry

1816-ca. 1882

Elias Boudinot

ca. 1804-1839

John Brown

ca. 1810-1876

William and Ellen Craft

1824-1900; 1826-1891

Hopkins Holsey

ca. 1799-1859

John Ross

1790-1866

Sequoyah

ca. 1770-ca. 1840

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Black and white photo of USS Savannah

USS Savannah (CL-42)

The fourth USS Savannah (CL-42) engaged in Atlantic and Meditteranean operations during World War II (1941-45), most notably Operation Torch, the allied invasion of North Africa.

Photograph by Naval History and Heritage Command

Black and white drawing of the USS Savannah

USS Savannah

The second USS Savannah completed naval operations in the Mexican and Civil Wars.  

From Old Naval Days: Sketches From the Life of Rear Admiral William Radford, U. S. N. by Sophie Radford De Meissner, Wikimedia

Black and white photo of USS Savannah (AS-8)

USS Savannah (AS-8)

The third USS Savannah (AS-8) served as a submarine tender during World War I (1917-18).

Photograph by Naval History and Heritage Command

The duel in which Button Gwinnett was killed by Lachlan McIntosh

Gwinnett McIntosh Duel

This 1777 engraving depicts the fatal duel between Button Gwinnett and Lachlan McIntosh. 

Courtesy of New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division

Button Gwinnett

Button Gwinnett

Button Gwinnett served in Georgia's colonial legislature, in the Second Continental Congress, and as president of Georgia's Revolutionary Council of Safety. He was one of three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence.

Lachlan McIntosh

Lachlan McIntosh

Lachlan McIntosh distinguished himself in a career that evolved over three critical eras in the state's early history, from the colonial period to the Revolutionary War to statehood.

David B. Mitchell

David B. Mitchell

David B. Mitchell served three terms as governor of Georgia early in the nineteenth century. Before his election to the governor's office, he served as mayor as Savannah. Mitchell resigned in 1817 from his third gubernatorial term to accept the post of U.S. Agent to the Creek Indians.

Courtesy of Georgia Capitol Museum, University of Georgia Libraries

Augustin Verot

Augustin Verot

Augustin Verot, known as the "Rebel Bishop" for his support of the Confederacy during the Civil War, became bishop of the Diocese of Savannah in 1861 and led the Catholic community through the turbulent years of war and Reconstruction.

Courtesy of Catholic Diocese of Savannah Archives

Slavery & Abolitionism

Slavery & Abolitionism

On January 4, 1861 Augustin Verot delivered a sermon defending the practice of slavery and condemning abolitionism. It was later reprinted as a Confederate tract and circulated throughout the region, earning Verot wide acclaim in southern states.   

Augustin Verot

Augustin Verot

In the aftermath of the Civil War, Augustin Verot called for Catholic bishops to support the construction of schools and churches for freedmen. 

William Grimes

William Grimes

This portrait was published with the Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave. The book, the first slave narrative printed in the U.S., was first published in New York City in 1825.

Photograph from Dwight C. Kilbourne, The Bench and Bar of Litchfield County, Connecticut, 1709-1909: Biographical Sketches of Members, History and Catalogue of the Litchfield Law School Historical Notes

Savannah Rice Plantations, 1825

Savannah Rice Plantations, 1825

This map of Savannah River-area rice plantations was created in 1825, the same year William Grimes first published his narrative in New York City. Grimes served six enslavers in Savannah between 1811 and 1815 before escaping to freedom in New England.

Chatham County Map Portfolio, compiled by workers of the Writers program of the Works Projects Administration in the State of Georgia. Sponsored by the Georgia Society of the Colonial Dames of America.

Map of Georgia, 1851

Map of Georgia, 1851

William G. Bonner's Pocket Map of the State of Georgia was published in Milledgeville in 1851. Bonner was a civil engineer who published a series of pocket maps in the mid-nineteenth century.

Trustees’ Charter Boundaries, 1732

Trustees’ Charter Boundaries, 1732

King George II granted James Oglethorpe and the Trustees a charter in 1732 to establish the colony of Georgia. This charter provided, among other things, that the new colony would consist of all the land between the headwaters of the Savannah and the Altamaha rivers, with its eastern boundary formed by the Atlantic Ocean and its western boundary by the "south seas," a reference to the Pacific Ocean.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia Colony Boundaries, 1763

Georgia Colony Boundaries, 1763

Georgia's original boundary remained the same from the founding of the colony until 1763, when the French and Indian War ended in a major territorial victory for the British. England, France, and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Georgia took on a new shape as a result of that treaty, with its western boundary becoming the Mississippi River rather than the Pacific Ocean.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Colony of East Florida, 1763

Colony of East Florida, 1763

In 1763 the British divided what had been Spanish Florida into the two new colonies of West Florida and East Florida, with the Apalachicola River serving as the dividing line between them. East Florida was all the land east of the Apalachicola River, with St. Augustine as its capital.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Colony of West Florida, 1763

Colony of West Florida, 1763

In 1763 the British divided what had been Spanish Florida into the two new colonies of West Florida and East Florida, with the Apalachicola River serving as the dividing line between them. West Florida, with Pensacola as its capital, extended west to the Mississippi River.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia State Boundaries, 1783

Georgia State Boundaries, 1783

The 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Revolutionary War (1775-83), fixed the 31st latitude north as the southern boundary of the new United States. The line extended from the Mississippi River eastward to the Chattahoochee River, moved down that river to its junction with the Flint River, and then followed a direct line east to the headwaters of the St. Marys River. 

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Orr-Whitner Line, 1861

Orr-Whitner Line, 1861

The Orr-Whitner line was accepted by Florida in 1861 and Georgia in 1866 as their official boundary, although the outbreak of the Civil War (1861-65) delayed the line's approval by the U.S. Congress until 1872.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Placement of Ellicott’s Rock, 1811

Placement of Ellicott’s Rock, 1811

In 1811 Georgia hired Andrew Ellicott to survey and mark the location of the 35th latitude north, which formed the boundary between Georgia and North Carolina. In an 1812 letter to North Carolina governor William Hawkins, Ellicott states: "In the parallel of 35 degree N. latitude, on the west side of the Chatoga river, a stone is set up marked on the South side (G. lat 35 N.) and on the north side, (N.C.) for North Carolina." This map locates what is currently and erroneously called Ellicott's Rock on the east side of the Chattooga River.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1826

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1826

This map shows the surveyed line as marked by James Camak, which set Georgia's northern boundary line south of the 35th latitude north, including the offset known as Montgomery's Corner.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1802

Georgia’s Northern and Western Boundaries, 1802

Following the 1802 Article of Agreement and Cession, Georgia's new western boundary began with the juncture of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers in southwest Georgia and proceeded north to the great bend of the river (at present-day West Point, Georgia). From there it stretched for 160 miles to the Indian village of Nickajack on the Tennessee River and continued from there up to the 35th latitude north.

Map by John Nelson. Reprinted by permission of William J. Morton

Fort Daniel Trench

Fort Daniel Trench

The east wall trench of Fort Daniel, constructed in Gwinnett County in 1814, was discovered by researchers with the Gwinnett Archaeological Research Society in 2009. Other intact buried features at the site include the entire stockade wall trench and evidence of two corner blockhouses.

Courtesy of The Fort Daniel Foundation, Inc.

Fort Daniel Survey

Fort Daniel Survey

Researchers with the Gwinnett Archaeological Research Society conduct a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey at the site of Fort Daniel, located on Hog Mountain in Gwinnett County, in 2007.

Courtesy of The Fort Daniel Foundation, Inc.

Frontier Fort Plan

Frontier Fort Plan

U.S. secretary of war Henry Knox sent this sketch of a proposed frontier fort to Georgia governor George Mathews in 1794. The drawing closely resembles the archaeological remains at the site of Fort Daniel, a stockade constructed in 1814 at Hog Mountain, in Gwinnett County.

Courtesy of James D'Angelo

River Plantation

River Plantation

British artist Thomas Addison Richards painted River Plantation (1855-60) from sketches made in Georgia during his travels through the South in the 1840s. Oil on canvas (20 1/4" x 30").

Courtesy of Morris Museum of Art

Cedar Grove

Cedar Grove

DeKalb County resident John Brandon Morris (far left) is pictured at his home, Cedar Grove, around the time of the Civil War.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
dek223-85.

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Lumpkin County Residents

Lumpkin County Residents

Eligea and Hanna Ricketts of Porter Springs, in Lumpkin County, are pictured circa 1860. In that year nearly a third of Georgia's populace lived in the state's upcountry and mountain counties.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
lum164.

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Enslaved Family

Enslaved Family

An enslaved family picking cotton outside Savannah in the 1850s.

Courtesy of New York Historical Society, Photograph by Pierre Havens..

Hofwyl Plantation

Hofwyl Plantation

The Hofwyl Plantation (later the Hofwyl-Broadfield Plantation) in Glynn County, a state historic site, is pictured circa 1910. The plantation, established in 1801, produced rice until shortly after the Civil War ended in 1865.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
gly189.

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Tenant Homes

Tenant Homes

The homes of tenant farmers stand alongside a cotton field in Georgia. Landless whites, many of whom were farm tenants, made up nearly half the white populace in the state by 1860.

From Plantation Slavery in Georgia, by R. B. Flanders

Carrying Cotton to the Gin

Carrying Cotton to the Gin

Enslaved workers are pictured carrying cotton to the gin at twilight in an 1854 drawing. Beginning in late July and continuing through December, enslaved workers would each pick between 250 and 300 pounds of cotton per day. The cotton gin, invented by Eli Whitney on a Georgia plantation in 1793, led to dramatically increased cotton yields and a greater dependence on slavery.

From Harper's New Monthly, March 1854

Rice Culture

Rice Culture

A. R. Waud's sketch Rice Culture on the Ogeechee, Near Savannah, Georgia depicts enslaved African Americans working in the rice fields.

From Harper's Weekly

Healan’s Mill

Healan’s Mill

Healan's Mill in Hall County was a gristmill built prior to the Civil War. Most industry in antebellum Georgia was related to agriculture, which formed the base of the state's economy at that time.

Image from Neal Wellons

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St. Simons Lumber Mills

St. Simons Lumber Mills

Timber from St. Simons Lumber Mills on St. Simons Island was shipped to market from this dock in Brunswick. After coming to a halt during the Civil War, the timber industry on the island was revived during the 1870s.

Logging Railroad

Logging Railroad

Railroads, which reached the rim of the Okefenokee Swamp by 1861, brought with them sawmills and turpentine stills, store-bought goods, circuses, and new people.

Courtesy of C. T. Trowell

W. T. Wofford

W. T. Wofford

W. T. Wofford, pictured on a postcard distributed in 1881 during the International Cotton Exposition in Atlanta, was a military leader and state legislator. A native of Habersham County, Wofford served in both the Mexican War and Civil War.

Howell Cobb

Howell Cobb

Georgia native Howell Cobb served as congressman (1843-51; 1855-57), Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (1849-51), governor of Georgia (1851-53), and secretary of the treasury (1857-60).

Alexander Stephens

Alexander Stephens

Alexander Stephens, a native of Taliaferro County, was a prominent member of the Whig Party during the sectional crisis that arose in the wake of the Mexican War (1846-48). He later joined the ranks of the Democratic party and served as vice president of the Confederacy during the Civil War (1861-65).

Zachary Taylor’s Cabinet

Zachary Taylor’s Cabinet

In 1849 George W. Crawford, a former governor of Georgia, joined U.S. president Zachary Taylor's cabinet as secretary of war. From left, Reverdy Johnson, William M. Meredith, William B. Preston, Zachary Taylor, Crawford, Jacob Collamer, Thomas Ewing, and John M. Clayton.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

George W. Towns

George W. Towns

George W. Towns served as the governor of Georgia from 1847 to 1851. Earlier in his career, Towns served as both a state legislator and a U.S. congressman. Although he entered politics as a Unionist, Towns was known as an ardent states' rights secessionist during his governorship.

Union

Union

Painter Tompkins H. Matteson's Union, engraved by Henry S. Sadd, is a symbolic portrait celebrating the legislators responsible for brokering the Compromise of 1850. Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Daniel Webster appear in the center, from left to right. Georgian Howell Cobb is portrayed in the far left background.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Robert Toombs

Robert Toombs

Robert Toombs helped to lead Georgia out of the Union on the eve of the Civil War, though his support for the Georgia Platform in 1850 had demonstrated his commitment to preserving the Union.

Charles Jones Jenkins

Charles Jones Jenkins

The Georgia Platform established Georgia's conditional acceptance of the Compromise of 1850. Much of the document followed a draft written by Charles Jones Jenkins, who later served as Georgia's governor from 1865 to 1868.

Democratic Platform Illustrated

Democratic Platform Illustrated

An 1856 political cartoon attacks the proslavery platform of the Democratic Party. In the lower right corner, an enslaved man and woman kneel before an overseer. One asks, "Is this democracy?" The overseer responds, "We will subdue you." In the left background a Kansas settlement burns, representing the violent response to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. This act, endorsed by Democrats, allowed for popular sovereignty to decide the slavery question in the western territories.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Joseph E. Brown

Joseph E. Brown

In 1857 Joseph E. Brown edged aside better-known politicians to become the Democrats' gubernatorial candidate. He won decisively, and from then on he was unbeatable in statewide elections.

Raid on Harpers Ferry

Raid on Harpers Ferry

This 1859 sketch of the abolitionist John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, appeared in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper and depicts an attack on the raiders at the railroad bridge. News of the raid intensified the call for secession by many southern slaveowners.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Herschel Johnson

Herschel Johnson

Herschel Johnson, a nineteenth-century Georgia politician, is pictured in an 1860 Currier and Ives portrait. That same year, Johnson was the vice-presidential running mate for Democratic candidate Stephen Douglas, who lost the election to Abraham Lincoln.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

John Fremont Stamp

John Fremont Stamp

This 1990s postage stamp features Savannah native John C. Fremont, the first Republican US presidential candidate.

Courtesy of Smithsonian National Postal Museum

Wanderer

Wanderer

The Wanderer is pictured during the Civil War (1861-65). Prior to its service in the Union navy, the Wanderer was the last ship to transport African captives to Georgia as part of the slave trade. Commissioned as a yacht in 1857, the ship was converted into a slave ship the following year, and was seized by the Union navy in 1861.

Courtesy of U.S. Naval Historical Center

Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas

Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas

Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas kept an extensive journal chronicling her life as the daughter and wife of Augusta planters from 1848 to 1889. An edited version of the journal was published in 1990 under the title The Secret Eye.

Mirabeau Lamar

Mirabeau Lamar

During the 1820s Mirabeau Lamar, a Georgia native, established the Columbus Enquirer newspaper and served in the state senate. In 1835 he left Georgia for Texas, where he became president of the republic in 1838.

Reprinted by permission of Institute of Texan Cultures, # 068-0069, source unknown

Etowah Mounds

Etowah Mounds

The Etowah Mounds in Bartow County include one of the largest Indian mounds in North America. The mounds, constructed during the Mississippian Period, served as platforms for public buildings in a town that occupied the site from around 1100 until the 1600s.

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle, a stone effigy built by Native Americans during the Woodland Period, circa A.D. 200, is located in Putnam County. The structure, made of quartz cobbles, measures 102 feet across the wings.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Indian Projectile Points

Indian Projectile Points

Commonly known as "arrowheads," millions of projectile points have been found throughout Georgia. These projectile points were made by Creek Indians in middle Georgia.

Courtesy of Forestry Images. Photograph by Billy Humphries, Forest Resource Consultants, Inc.

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

A drawing from Lambert A. Wilmer's Life, Travels and Adventures of Ferdinand de Soto, Discoverer of the Mississippi (1859) depicts Hernando de Soto and his men crossing the Chattahoochee River. The accidental introduction of European diseases by explorers destroyed many of the civilizations along the river's banks.

Courtesy of Florida State Archives, Photographic Collection.

Georgia Trustees

Georgia Trustees

This oil painting by William Verelst shows the founders of Georgia, the Georgia Trustees, and a delegation of Georgia Indians in July 1734. One year later the Trustees persuaded the British government to support a ban on slavery in Georgia.

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Button Gwinnett, George Walton, and Lyman Hall were the three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence.

Battle of Kettle Creek

Battle of Kettle Creek

This sketch, likely a small portion of a larger work, depicts the Battle of Kettle Creek, which took place in Wilkes County on February 14, 1779, during the Revolutionary War. The original caption reads: "Engagement between the Whigs and Tories."

Courtesy of Kettle Creek Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution

Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney

The inventor of the cotton gin, Eli Whitney lived in Georgia for just a year, on Catharine Greene's Mulberry Grove plantation near Savannah. After learning of the difficulty planters had with separating seeds from fibers in upland, or "short-staple," cotton, he set out to create a machine that could perform such a task more efficiently. His invention, the cotton gin, revolutionized the southern economy.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College, founded in Macon in 1836, was the first college in the world to grant degrees to women. Pictured is the Candler Alumnae Building, which was originally used as a library. Today the building houses the offices of Alumnae Affairs, Institutional Advancement, and Development.

Courtesy of Wesleyan College

Cherokee Trail of Tears

Cherokee Trail of Tears

In his 1942 painting Cherokee Trail of Tears, Robert Lindneux depicts the forced journey of the Cherokees in 1838 to present-day Oklahoma.

Courtesy of Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

Secession Ordinance

Secession Ordinance

On January 21, 1861, the ordinance of secession was publicly signed in a ceremony by Georgia politicians. Two days earlier, delegates to a convention in Milledgeville voted 208 to 89 for the state to secede from the Union.

Robert Toombs

Robert Toombs

Wilkes County native Robert Toombs, pictured circa 1865, served briefly as the Confederate government's secretary of state and as a brigadier general during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Andersonville Prison

Andersonville Prison

Union prisoners of war are pictured at the Andersonville Prison in Macon County on August 17, 1864. Malnutrition and poor sanitary conditions at the camp led to the deaths of nearly 13,000 of Andersonville's 45,000 prisoners, the highest mortality rate of any Civil War prison.

Courtesy of Civil War Treasures, New-York Historical Society

Freedmen’s Bureau

Freedmen’s Bureau

An 1868 sketch by A. R. Waud illustrates the difficulties faced by the Freedmen's Bureau, caught between white planters on one side (left) and formerly enslaved African Americans on the other (right). The bureau was established in 1865 after Union general William T. Sherman issued his Field Order No. 15, which called for the resettlement of freedpeople on confiscated lands.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Henry W. Grady

Henry W. Grady

With his New South platform, Henry W. Grady advocated unity and trust between the North and South and helped to spur northern investment in Atlanta industries.

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers

Sharecroppers, pictured in 1910, harvest cotton in Randolph County. Theoretically beneficial to both laborers and landowners, the sharecropping system typically left workers in deep debt to their landlords and creditors from one harvest season to the next.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #ran218-82.

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Thomas E. Watson

Thomas E. Watson

In 1892 Georgia politics was shaken by the arrival of the Populist Party. Led by Thomas E. Watson of McDuffie County, this new party mainly appealed to white farmers, many of whom had been impoverished by debt and low cotton prices in the 1880s and 1890s. The Populists also attempted to win the support of Black farmers away from the Republican Party.

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!

I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang! (1932) is a memoir by Robert Elliott Burns detailing his two escapes from the Georgia chain gang. The book describes the brutality and harsh conditions of the Georgia prison system during the 1920s. This book cover is from the 1997 reprint by the University of Georgia Press.

Boll Weevil Dusting

Boll Weevil Dusting

A cotton farmer applies insecticide to combat boll weevils using a mule-drawn duster, circa 1920. The boll weevil devastated Georgia's cotton crops from 1915 into the 1920s. The insect was finally eradicated from the state in the early 1990s.

Courtesy of Agricultural Research Service. Photograph by Rob Flynn

Roosevelts in Atlanta

Roosevelts in Atlanta

U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, visit Atlanta in 1935, during the Great Depression. From left: Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt, U.S. senator Walter F. George, and U.S. senator Richard B. Russell Jr.

Ben Epps

Ben Epps

Georgia aviation pioneer Ben Epps is pictured with his first airplane outside his garage in Athens, 1907.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
clr176-83.

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Fort Benning

Fort Benning

U.S. soldiers, pictured in the spring of 1942, undergo training at Fort Benning in Columbus. During World War II Fort Benning was the largest infantry training post in the world.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Segregation Protest

Segregation Protest

Students protest segregation at the state capitol building in Atlanta on February 1, 1962. The passage of the federal Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965 ended legal segregation across the nation.

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Integration of Atlanta Schools

Reporters gather at Atlanta's city hall on August 30, 1961, the day that the city's schools were officially integrated. The recommendations of the Sibley Commission to the state legislature in 1960 contributed to the desegregation of schools across Georgia.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection.

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Hunter and Holmes, UGA

Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes, the first Black students to enroll at the University of Georgia, are pictured here at the end of their first day on campus in January 1961.

Albany Movement

Albany Movement

Martin Luther King Jr. (second from right) and Ralph David Abernathy (third from right) pray during their arrest in Albany on July 27, 1962. William G. Anderson, the president of the Albany Movement, asked King and Abernathy to help with efforts to desegregate the city.

Carl Sanders

Carl Sanders

Augusta native Carl Sanders, elected governor of Georgia in 1962, brought the state into compliance with federal civil rights law during his single term in office.

Lester Maddox, 1964

Lester Maddox, 1964

In 1966 Lester Maddox defeated former governor Ellis Arnall in the Democratic gubernatorial primary in a major political upset. Subsequently, as a result of a close race between Maddox and Republican Bo Callaway, the General Assembly chose Maddox as governor.

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

U.S. president Jimmy Carter (right) meets with Hamilton Jordan in the Oval Office of the White House in 1977. Jordan served as Carter's chief of staff from 1977 to 1980.

Olympics Closing Ceremony

Olympics Closing Ceremony

The closing ceremony of the Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta took place on August 4, 1996. During the games around 2 million visitors to Georgia watched more than 10,000 athletes compete in twenty-six different sports. After the games ended, Olympic Stadium was refitted as Turner Field, home of the Atlanta Braves baseball team from 1997-2016, and later redeveloped as Georgia State University's Center Parc Stadium.

Courtesy of International Olympic Committee, Olympic Museum Collections, Photograph by Giulio Locatelli.

Peanut Farming

Peanut Farming

Georgia farmers lead the United States in peanut production, raising approximately 45 percent of the nation's total harvest. Grown in most south Georgia counties, peanuts are the official state crop.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Sonny Perdue

Sonny Perdue

Georgia governor Sonny Perdue speaks in 2005 at the annual Governor's Awards in the Humanities ceremony in Atlanta. Perdue served as governor from 2003 to 2011.

Photograph by Allison Shirreffs

Latino Workers

Latino Workers

Latino workers plant loblolly pine seedlings in 1999 near Bremen, in Haralson County. Latino immigrants came to Georgia in large numbers during the 1980s and 1990s to work in the agriculture, construction, carpet, and poultry processing industries.

St. Simons Tourists

St. Simons Tourists

Tourists on St. Simons Island gather outside one of the island's many shops. The island suffered an economic depression at the end of the cotton era in the 1830s, but its fortunes reversed with the arrival of the timber industry in the 1870s. Today St. Simons enjoys a strong tourist industry.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia.

Roller Gin

Roller Gin

This roller gin, built by William Van Houten in Turner County, won first place at the Savannah State Fair in 1901. Farmers have continued to modify and improve Eli Whitney's original cotton gin since its invention in 1793.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
tur001.

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Cotton Gin

Cotton Gin

An original model of an Eli Whitney cotton gin (circa 1800) is on display in Washington, D.C., at the National Museum of American History.

Image from National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution

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Catharine Greene

Catharine Greene

Catharine Greene was the noted wife of Revolutionary War general Nathanael Greene and later a supporter of Eli Whitney, the inventor of the cotton gin. This painting of Greene (oil on panel, 32 3/4" x 25 3/4"), dated circa 1809, is attributed to James Frothingham.

Courtesy of Telfair Museums.

Noon at the Cotton-Gin

Noon at the Cotton-Gin

An illustration in the October 1881 issue of Harper's New Monthly depicts Black farmers bringing their crops to the cotton gin. A cotton press is pictured in the background.

From Harper's New Monthly, October 1881

Dykes Creek Cotton Gin

Dykes Creek Cotton Gin

The Dykes Creek Cotton Gin, pictured circa 1890, was located on Kingston Road in Rome. In the decades after the Civil War, cotton farmers brought their cotton to a community gin, rather than installing cotton gins on their own property.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #flo136.

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Cotton Gin Proprietor

Cotton Gin Proprietor

James Marion Prance, the proprietor of a cotton gin in Cobb County, is pictured sitting in front of bales of cotton in the early 1900s.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
cob575.

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Oliver H. Prince

Oliver H. Prince

Oliver H. Prince, a native of Connecticut, had a varied career in Georgia, which included stints as a lawyer, state and U.S. senator, journalist, and humorist. He was also instrumental in the founding of Macon and in bringing railroads to the state.

New Echota Dedication

New Echota Dedication

Cherokee Indian leaders pose in 1976 next to a plaque dedicating New Echota as a National Historic Landmark. Located northeast of Calhoun, New Echota was the capital of the Cherokee Nation.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
gor036.

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Map of Cherokee Nation, 1830

Map of Cherokee Nation, 1830

This map shows the 1830 boundaries of the Cherokee Nation in northwestern Georgia. Map published by Anthony Finley Company.

Blood Mountain

Blood Mountain

Blood Mountain, at 4,461 feet, is the highest peak along the Appalachian Trail in Georgia and the sixth highest mountain in the state. The mountain is located near the line between Union and Lumpkin counties and may have been named for a battle between the Cherokees and the Creeks.

Photograph by Sammy Hancock

Chattooga Town Site

Chattooga Town Site

A 1993 aerial view shows the site of Chattooga Town, a Cherokee settlement along the Chattooga River during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. An English census conducted in 1721 lists about ninety people in the town, which included numerous structures.

Photograph by SkyShots. Courtesy of Frank H. McClung Museum, University of Tennessee

Etowah Indian Figures

Etowah Indian Figures

Archaeological excavation, carried out intermittently at the Etowah mound site for more than 100 years, has unearthed artifacts such as these figures, which have provided much information about life in the Mississippian Period.

Photograph from Wikimedia

Cherokee “Center of the World” Marker

Cherokee “Center of the World” Marker

Ah-Yeh-Li A-Lo-Hee, or the Cherokee "Center of the World," is located off U.S. Highway 29 in Hart County. The Cherokees would assemble here to hold their councils, dance and worship, and barter their hides, furs, and blankets for the trade goods of white men.

Photograph by Darby Carl Sanders, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Colonial Military

Colonial Military

During Georgia's colonial period, from 1733 to 1776, British militia forces defended the colony from encroaching French and Spanish settlers, as well as from attacks by the Choctaws, Creeks, and Cherokees.

Print by Jean Schucker

Fort Yargo Cabin

Fort Yargo Cabin

The Fort Yargo cabin was built by whites in 1792 for protection against the Creeks and the Cherokees. Today it is used for history encampments at Fort Yargo State Park.

Photograph by Ashley Farrow, Wikimedia Commons

John Ross

John Ross

As principal chief of the Cherokee Nation, John Ross struggled until 1838 against the removal of the Cherokees from the Southeast. Beginning in 1838, however, he was forced to lead the Cherokees through the tragic removal period, which culminated in the Trail of Tears. He remained principal chief until his death in 1866.

Oothcaloga Moravian Mission

Oothcaloga Moravian Mission

The Oothcaloga Moravian Mission provided education and religious instruction to Cherokees from 1822 to 1833. Operated by the Moravian Church, the mission was located in present-day Gordon County. By 1833 whites occupied the house, following the land lottery of 1832.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #gor322.

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John D. Gray

John D. Gray

John D. Gray was the first major railroad contractor in the South and served as president of the Monroe Railroad in Georgia. During the Civil War he manufactured weaponry for the Confederacy.

Courtesy of Nancy Eubanks

Francis S. Bartow

Francis S. Bartow

Colonel Francis S. Bartow was killed in July 1861 during a Civil War battle at Manassas, Virginia. He was the first high-ranking Georgia military officer to die in the war. Before his death, Bartow advocated for secession and became one of the leaders of the new Confederate government. His portrait was painted by Willis Pepoon.

Garnett Andrews

Garnett Andrews

Garnett Andrews was appointed judge of the Northern Circuit of the Superior Court of Georgia in 1834. He later served in the state House of Representatives and, on the eve of the Civil War, was a vocal opponent of secession. The portrait was painted in the early 1830s.

Courtesy of Rosalie Andrews McConnell

Garnett Andrews Tombstone

Garnett Andrews Tombstone

Garnett Andrews, along with all but one of his children, is buried in the Resthaven Cemetery of Washington, Georgia. Andrews was a prominent Wilkes County resident and a jurist, writer, politician, and agriculturist.

Photograph by S. Kittrell Rushing

Josiah Tattnall

Josiah Tattnall

As a U.S. naval officer, Josiah Tattnall traveled around the world during the 1840s and 1850s. After the Civil War began, he was commissioned as a captain in the Confederate navy, with command of the Georgia and South Carolina coasts.

Image from U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph

William Harris Crawford

William Harris Crawford

William Harris Crawford, a longtime resident of Oglethorpe County, became the first Georgian to run for the U.S. presidency when he stood for election in both 1816 and 1824. Although never elected president, Crawford served in a variety of other capacities during his political career, including service as a state representative, U.S. senator, minister to France, and cabinet member for U.S. president James Madison.

Courtesy of Department of the Treasury

State’s Rights Hotel

State’s Rights Hotel

The building that housed the State's Rights Hotel in Milledgeville was designed in the Federal style by John Marlor and completed in 1825. The structure was probably used as a tavern until 1837, when the building was sold. The hotel opened about two years later and became a center of political activity for several years.

Courtesy of Georgia's Old Capital Museum

State’s Rights Hotel

State’s Rights Hotel

The State's Rights Hotel in Milledgeville, established around 1839, was housed in what is known today as the Brown-Stetson-Sanford House, pictured in 1966. Until its closure in 1847, the hotel catered to state legislators while the Georgia General Assembly was in session and served as the state headquarters of the Whig Party.

Courtesy of Georgia's Old Capital Museum

Brown-Stetson-Sanford House

Brown-Stetson-Sanford House

The Brown-Stetson-Sanford House in Milledgeville, the former home of the State's Rights Hotel, was moved from its original location on North Wilkinson Street to West Hancock Street in 1966. Today the home, pictured in 2006, houses a museum and civic center operated by the Old Capital Museum.

Courtesy of Georgia's Old Capital Museum

John Macpherson Berrien

John Macpherson Berrien

As a U.S. senator, John Macpherson Berrien distinguished himself as an eloquent debater. The U.S. Supreme Court chief justice John Marshall dubbed him "the honey-tongued Georgia youth." Engraving is by J. C. Buttre from a daguerreotype.

John Macpherson Berrien

John Macpherson Berrien

John Macpherson Berrien, pictured circa 1830, served as a state senator, a U.S. senator, and the attorney general of the United States under President Andrew Jackson. A native of New Jersey, Berrien spent much of his life in Savannah.

Georgia Land Lottery

Georgia Land Lottery

Cherokee land lots were parceled out to white Georgians in one of the two state land lotteries held in 1832. The state conducted a total of eight lotteries between 1805 and 1833. Sketch by George I. Parrish Jr., circa 1832.

Artwork by George I. Parrish Jr. Courtesy of Cindy Parrish, Maryville,TN

Yazoo Act Burning

Yazoo Act Burning

The burning of the Yazoo Act, which resulted in the Yazoo land fraud of 1795, took place on the grounds of the capitol building in Louisville. Louisville served as the state capital from 1796 until 1806, when the legislature moved to Milledgeville.

Mary Telfair

Mary Telfair

Mary Telfair, the daughter of Georgia governor Edward Telfair, bequeathed the family home in Savannah to found Telfair Museums, today the oldest public art museum in the South. Portrait by Enrichetta Narducci (1842), gouache on ivory, 3 1/8" x 2 3/4".

Courtesy of Telfair Museums.

Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences

Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences

Sculptures donated by Mary Telfair grace the interior of the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences (later Telfair Museums) in Savannah, circa 1900. Telfair bequeathed the family home, designed by William Jay, for the establishment of the museum upon her death in 1875.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, # ctm189.

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Telfair Hospital for Females

Telfair Hospital for Females

The Telfair Hospital for Females, in Savannah, was built in 1884 in the Italianate style by the architectural firm of Fay and Eichberg. Funding for the hospital was provided for in Mary Telfair's will, and by 1960, when it merged with Candler General Hospital, the facility had become the longest-operating women's hospital in the country.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Historic American Buildings Survey, Photograph by Walter Smalling Jr..

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Independent Presbyterian Church

Independent Presbyterian Church

Independent Presbyterian Church in Savannah, pictured circa 1930, counted Mary Telfair, the benefactor of Telfair Museums, as a member in the nineteenth century. U.S. first lady Ellen Axson Wilson, whose paternal grandfather began serving as pastor in 1857, was born in the manse of the church in 1860 and married there in 1885.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ctm159.

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William Brown Hodgson

William Brown Hodgson

William Brown Hodgson married into the prominent Telfair family of Savannah in 1842 and, in addition to managing the family plantations, became an important figure in the city's intellectual life. Watercolor-on-ivory miniature portrait (1842) by Ernest J. A. Girard.

Courtesy of Telfair Museums.

William Brown Hodgson

William Brown Hodgson

This portrait of William Brown Hodgson, by artist Carl Brandt, was unveiled at the 1876 dedication ceremony for Hodsgon Hall in Savannah. The hall was built in Hodgson's memory by his wife, Margaret Telfair Hodgson, to house the Georgia Historical Society.

William Brown Hodgson

William Brown Hodgson

As a young man, William Brown Hodgson earned an honorary degree from Princeton University in 1824 and went to work for the U.S. State Department. He served as a diplomat with the department until 1842, traveling to Algeria, Turkey, Egypt, and Peru.

Hodgson Hall

Hodgson Hall

Hodgson Hall, completed in 1875, stands at the northwest corner of Forsyth Park in Savannah and houses the Georgia Historical Society. The building was erected by Margaret Telfair Hodgson in honor of her husband, William Brown Hodgson, an active member and curator in the society.

Photograph by Sarah E. McKee, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Margaret Telfair Hodgson

Margaret Telfair Hodgson

Margaret Telfair was born into the prominent Telfair family of Savannah in 1797, and in 1842 she married William Hodgson in London, England. The couple lived in the Telfair mansion on St. James Square in Savannah until their deaths in the 1870s. Portrait attributed to Richard West Habersham, watercolor on ivory (1 7/8" x 1 1/2 "), ca. 1834-35.

Courtesy of Telfair Museums.

Joseph Vann

Joseph Vann

Joseph Vann, the son of Cherokee chief James Vann, inherited his father's Spring Place Plantation in Murray County. Before being dispossessed of the plantation in 1834, Vann was a successful businessman and member of the Cherokee legislature.

Courtesy of Chief Vann House Historic Site

Chief Vann House, 1934

Chief Vann House, 1934

In 1834 Cherokee chief James Vann's son Joseph lost the family home to the state. The home was subsequently owned by seventeen people and had fallen into a state of disrepair before its 1952 purchase and restoration by the Georgia Historical Commission.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division