John Clark

1766-1832

David Emanuel

ca. 1744-1808

William Ewen

ca. 1720-1776/1777

Lyman Hall

1724-1790

John Houstoun

ca. 1747-1796

Jared Irwin

ca. 1750-1818

Bert Lance

1931-2013

John Lewis

1940-2020

John Martin

ca. 1730-1786

Mike Egan

1926-2016

Tom Murphy

1924-2007

John Reynolds

ca. 1713-1788

Dean Rusk

1909-1994

Hoke Smith

1855-1931

Josiah Tattnall

ca. 1764-1803

George Walton

ca. 1749-1804

John Wereat

ca. 1733-1799

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Black and white photograph of Milledgeville State Hospital circa 1940

Milledgeville State Hospital

A sleeping ward at Milledgeville State Hospital for the Insane, circa 1940. Authorities at the hospital practiced compulsory sterilization of patients throughout the 1940s and 1950s. Following an award-winning 1959 report by Atlanta Constitution Jack Nelson, the number of operations dropped dramatically before finally ceasing in 1963.

Courtesy of Special Collections & Archives, Georgia State University Library, Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive .

Black and white photo of Francis Galton

Francis Galton

Francis Galton was an English statistician whose theories on heredity lead him to develop the field of eugenics. During the early twentieth century, Galton's ideas gained support among scientific and medical professionals, politicians, and Progressive-era reform groups.

Image from Eveleen Myers

Georgia State Sanitarium

Georgia State Sanitarium

This tinted postcard of the Georgia State Sanitarium (later Central State Hospital) depicts the grounds of the institution circa 1905. During this time the hospital was under the leadership of Theophilus O. Powell, who implemented more precise methods of diagnosis.

Courtesy of Melinda Smith Mullikin, New Georgia Encyclopedia

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Iris Blitch Speaking

Iris Blitch Speaking

Iris Blitch, pictured here speaking in Jesup in Wayne County, broke ground for female politicians in the 1950s and 1960s. When she was first elected in 1948, she was the only female legislator in the state.

Iris Blitch with Speaker Sam Rayburn

Iris Blitch with Speaker Sam Rayburn

Iris Blitch, far left, greets U.S. House Sepaker Sam Rayburn. Blitch and Edith Green of Oregon, second from left, were newly elected congresswomen in 1955. The Eighty-Fourth U.S. Congress had seventeen women.

Courtesy of the Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives

Iris F. Blitch

Iris F. Blitch

Iris Blitch, pictured here circa 1955, won her first congressional election in 1954, after unseating U.S. representative William McDonald "Don" Wheeler. She served the Eighth Congressional District of Georgia from 1955 to to 1963.

Courtesy of the Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives

Roswell City Hall

Roswell City Hall

Roswell, originally located in Cobb County, lies twenty miles north of Atlanta on the Chattahoochee River. Annexed to Fulton County in 1932, the city today is part of the Atlanta Regional Commission, a member of the Georgia Association of Regional Commissions.

Photograph by Jerry Joiner

Georgia’s Regional Commissions

Georgia’s Regional Commissions

Georgia is divided into twelve regional commissions, which function as multicounty planning and development agencies.

Courtesy of Georgia Association of Regional Commissions

John Archibald Campbell

John Archibald Campbell

John Archibald Campbell, a native of Wilkes County, served on the U.S. Supreme Court from 1853 until the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Women Voters

Women Voters

Women in Gwinnett County demonstrate in favor of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which guaranteed women the right to vote. The amendment passed in 1920.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, # gwn151b.

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Frances Pauley

Frances Pauley

Frances Pauley attends a banquet of the Atlanta branch of the Urban League (AUL) in 1961. Pauley served on the board of the AUL and was president of the Georgia League of Women Voters during the 1950s.

Augustin Smith Clayton

Augustin Smith Clayton

At the end of the 1820s Augustin Smith Clayton of Athens constructed a cotton mill near his hometown, hoping to prove the protective tariff that subsidized northern industry at the expense of southerners unnecessary.

Augustin Smith Clayton

Augustin Smith Clayton

Augustin Smith Clayton, a native of Virginia, lived much of his life in Athens, where he rose to prominence as a politician and jurist of national significance.

Courtesy of Georgia Museum of Art

Our Overworked Supreme Court

Our Overworked Supreme Court

Published in 1885, the print Our Overworked Supreme Court depicts Supreme Court justices Woods, Blatchford, Harlan, Gray, Miller, Field, Waite, Bradley, and Matthews surrounded by paperwork for cases.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

William Burnham Woods

William Burnham Woods

William Burnham Woods, a native of Ohio, was a resident of Atlanta when he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1881. He served on the Court until his death in 1887.

Courtesy of British Museum, London

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Joseph Rucker Lamar

Joseph Rucker Lamar

Joseph Rucker Lamar, a native of Elbert County, served as a justice on the U.S. Supreme Court from 1911 to 1915.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Joseph Rucker Lamar

Joseph Rucker Lamar

Joseph Rucker Lamar, a native of Elbert County, served as a justice on the U.S. Supreme Court from 1911 to 1915.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

James Moore Wayne

James Moore Wayne

James Moore Wayne, pictured circa 1850, was a Savannah native and the first Georgian appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. He served as a justice from 1835 to 1867, one of the longest tenures in the Court's history.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Nathan Deal

Nathan Deal

Governor Nathan Deal, elected in 2010, delivers the State of the State address in January 2011. Deal served as governor from 2011 to 2019. 

Courtesy of georgia.gov

Nathan Deal’s Inauguration

Nathan Deal’s Inauguration

Nathan Deal (right) was sworn in as Georgia's eighty-second governor on January 10, 2011, in Atlanta. He is pictured with his predecessor, Governor Sonny Perdue (left), and Georgia secretary of state Brian Kemp. Deal served as governor from 2011 to 2019.

Courtesy of Georgia.gov

Henry L. Benning

Henry L. Benning

Henry L. Benning was an influential advocate for secession and helped to draft Georgia's Ordinance of Secession. 

Henry L. Benning

Henry L. Benning

Henry L. Benning served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia during the 1850s and as a brigadier general during the Civil War. Fort Benning, near Columbus, is named in his honor.

Fort Benning

Fort Benning

Fort Benning, home of the U.S. Army Infantry, comprises nearly 120,000 acres in Chattahoochee County.

Courtesy of Fort Benning

Court of Appeals Motto

Court of Appeals Motto

The motto of the Court of Appeals of Georgia was engraved into the wall of its former courtroom in the State Judicial Building in Atlanta. Fifteen judges serve on the Court of Appeals, which was established in 1906 to ease the caseload of the Supreme Court of Georgia.

Photograph by S. Sean Barrett

Hugh Peterson

Hugh Peterson

Hugh Peterson, pictured in 1925, was a state legislator from 1922 until 1934, during which time he was instrumental in passing the State Reorganization Act of 1931. Peterson went on to represent Georgia's First Congressional District in the U.S. Congress, serving from 1934 to 1946.

Hugh Peterson

Hugh Peterson

Congressman Hugh Peterson (front row, center), pictured in July 1937, and guests eat watermelons sent by J. M. Stubbs of Savannah. Peterson served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1934 to 1946.

Sixtieth Regiment of Foot

Sixtieth Regiment of Foot

Three companies of the British Sixtieth Regiment of Foot were sent to the Georgia colony in 1763 by King George III to strengthen the defense of colonial garrisons against attack by the French and Spanish.

Courtesy of The Company of Military Historians

Judicial Building

Judicial Building

The Judicial Building in Atlanta houses the Supreme Court of Georgia, as well as the Court of Appeals and the Attorney General's office.

Courtesy of the Supreme Court of Georgia

Leah Ward Sears

Leah Ward Sears

Leah Ward Sears, the first woman and youngest justice to sit on the Supreme Court of Georgia, served as chief justice from 2005 to 2009.

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

Hamilton Jordan and Jimmy Carter

U.S. president Jimmy Carter (right) meets with Hamilton Jordan in the Oval Office of the White House in 1977. Jordan served as Carter's chief of staff from 1977 to 1980.

Hamilton Jordan

Hamilton Jordan

Hamilton Jordan, pictured in 1977, served as a prominent advisor to Jimmy Carter during Carter's tenures as governor of Georgia and president of the United States. Jordan grew up in Albany and graduated from the University of Georgia with a degree in political science.

Jody Powell and Hamilton Jordan

Jody Powell and Hamilton Jordan

Georgians Jody Powell (left) and Hamilton Jordan, known as "the gold dust twins," sucessfully managed Jimmy Carter's presidential campaign in 1976. Following the election both men, pictured in 1977, served in Carter's administration, Powell as press secretary and Jordan as chief of staff.

No Such Thing as a Bad Day

No Such Thing as a Bad Day

Hamilton Jordan, a noted political advisor to U.S. president Jimmy Carter, recounts his experiences with cancer in the memoir No Such Thing as a Bad Day (2000). Jordan, an advocate for cancer research, cofounded Camp Sunshine, a camp for children with cancer, in 1982 and the Georgia Cancer Coalition in 1999.

Department of Labor

Department of Labor

The central office of the Georgia Department of Labor is pictured in 2008 at the corner of Piedmont Avenue and Andrew Young International Boulevard in Atlanta. The Department of Labor, created in 1937, provides workforce and vocational rehabilitation services, in addition to overseeing workplace safety programs and gathering labor and occupational statistics in Georgia.

Courtesy of Georgia Department of Labor

Mark Butler

Mark Butler

Mark Butler, the commissioner of the Georgia Department of Labor, was elected in 2010.

Courtesy of Georgia Department of Labor

Valdosta Career Center

Valdosta Career Center

The Valdosta Career Center, pictured circa 2008, is one of fifty-three career centers administered by the Georgia Department of Labor. These career centers, which aim to assist Georgia workers through training, educational resources, and financial support, replace traditional unemployment offices in the state.

Courtesy of Georgia Department of Labor

Athens Career Center

Athens Career Center

The Athens Career Center, pictured circa 2008, provides computers and other resources to job seekers in the Clarke County area. The center is administered by the Georgia Department of Labor.

Courtesy of Georgia Department of Labor

Michael L. Thurmond

Michael L. Thurmond

Michael L. Thurmond, the commissioner of the Georgia Department of Labor, was elected in 1998 and served until 2011.

Courtesy of Dekalb County

Newt Gingrich

Newt Gingrich

Newt Gingrich speaks to the media in Atlanta in December 2000, after the U.S. Supreme Court had decided in favor of George W. Bush in the contested presidential election of that year. Gingrich has remained politically active since his resignation from the U.S. Congress in 1999.

Newt Gingrich

Newt Gingrich

Elected ten times to the U.S. House of Representatives, Congressman Newt Gingrich emerged as a powerful national leader of the Republican Party after he became Speaker of the House in 1995. He retired from Congress in 1999.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Newt Gingrich

Newt Gingrich

In 1978 Republican Newt Gingrich won his first term to the U.S. House of Representatives. He went on to represent the Sixth District of Georgia until 1999.

Tailfer’s Title Page

Tailfer’s Title Page

During the 1730s, Scottish settler Patrick Tailfer led a group of colonists, knowns as the Malcontents, in protest of various laws and policies enforced by the Georgia Trustees. His 1740 tract, entitled A True and Historical Narrative of the Colony of Georgia, was read in influential circles but failed to make a substantial impact on the circumstances of the Malcontents.

From A True and Historical Narrative of the Colony of Georgia in America, by P. Tailfer

Groover Stopping Clock

Groover Stopping Clock

On the final day of the 1964 legislative session, Georgia representative Denmark Groover attempted to stop the clock in the state House of Representatives during a debate on congressional redistricting.

Denmark Groover

Denmark Groover

Representative Denmark Groover, pictured in 1984, was considered one of the shrewdest members of the General Assembly because of his prodigious memory for legislation. He was also involved in some of the state's most controversial political events, including two redesigns of the state flag.

Tom Buck

Tom Buck

Pictured in 1982, Tom Buck of Columbus served in the Georgia House of Representatives for thirty-eight years, one of the longest tenures of any lawmaker in the state's history.

Calvin Smyre and Tom Buck

Calvin Smyre and Tom Buck

Calvin Smyre (left) and Tom Buck were powerful and effective legislators in the state House of Representatives for their home district of Columbus. They are pictured in 1986.

Culver Kidd

Culver Kidd

State senator Culver Kidd, pictured in 1990, was a powerful legislator who sponsored a larger number of bills each session than most of his colleagues.

Culver Kidd

Culver Kidd

Culver Kidd served as a member of the Georgia General Assembly for forty-two years, representing Baldwin County in middle Georgia. His portrait was painted circa 1996 by Stan J. Strickland and hangs in the state capitol.

Courtesy of Georgia Capitol Museum, University of Georgia Libraries

Culver Kidd and David Scott

Culver Kidd and David Scott

Georgia state senator Culver Kidd speaks in 1988 with fellow Democratic state senator David Scott in the legislative chambers. Scott was elected to the U.S. Congress in 2002.

Moody Air Force Base

Moody Air Force Base

Moody Air Force Base in Lowndes County is home to the A-10 aircraft. The A-10C Thunderbolt II pictured here is equipped with satellite-guided precision weaponry and is used for the air force's search-and-rescue missions.

Courtesy of Moody Air Force Base. Photograph by Parker Gyokeres

Moody Air Force Base

Moody Air Force Base

An HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopter hovers over a field at Moody Air Force Base in Lowndes County. The helicopters are used by the air force to conduct search-and-rescue missions in hostile environments, especially to recover downed aircrew or other isolated military members during war.

Image from U.S. Air Force

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Moody Air Force Base

Moody Air Force Base

Airmen from the 41st Rescue Squadron and the 347th Operations Support Squadron, based at Moody Air Force Base, participate in combat survival training in the Grand Bay Wildlife Management Area, near Moody.

Courtesy of Moody Air Force Base. Photograph by Eric Schloeffel

Moody Air Force Base (Aerial View)

Moody Air Force Base (Aerial View)

Moody Air Force Base in Valdosta is home to the 23d Wing, which includes the 347th Rescue Group. More than 4,600 military and civilian personnel are assigned to the 12,000-acre base.

Courtesy of Beryl I. Diamond

William A. Connelly

William A. Connelly

Monticello native William A. Connelly served as Sergeant Major of the Army, the highest-ranking noncommissioned officer in the U.S. Army, from 1979 to 1983.

Courtesy of U.S. Army

Bill Lee and Calvin Smyre

Bill Lee and Calvin Smyre

Bill Lee (left), one of the longest-serving members of the state House of Representatives, converses with Representative Calvin Smyre in 1988. A native of Clayton County, Lee served as chairman of the House Rules Committee.

Bill Lee and Frank Redding

Bill Lee and Frank Redding

State representative Bill Lee (left) is pictured with fellow representative Frank Redding in the 1990s. Lee served in the house for forty-two consecutive years, thereby earning the nickname "Dean of the House."

Sidney J. Marcus

Sidney J. Marcus

Sidney J. Marcus was elected to the state House of Representatives in 1968 and served for seven terms. He chaired the house's Health and Ecology Committee and was a member of both the Rules Committee and the Ways and Means Committee. The auditorium at the World Congress Center in Atlanta, which Marcus worked to establish, is named in his honor.

George Hooks

George Hooks

Senator George Hooks, from Americus, retired in 2012 from serving the Georgia General Assembly. During his thirty-two years in the assembly, he became known as an expert on the state's finances, as well as the unofficial historian of the senate.

George Hooks

George Hooks

During the 2003 legislative session, one of the most divisive issues facing the General Assembly was the design of the state flag. Senator George Hooks worked across political party lines to create a bill that could pass. Hooks is credited with helping to end decades of controversy and political fighting over the state flag design.

Dorothy Felton

Dorothy Felton

Dorothy Felton, pictured in 1979, was the first Republican woman to be elected to the Georgia General Assembly. She was elected to the state House of Representatives in 1974 and served until 2000.

George Busbee and Mike Egan

George Busbee and Mike Egan

Mike Egan (right) is pictured with George Busbee in 1974, the year Busbee was elected governor of Georgia. Egan served in the state legislature as both a representative (1966-76) and a senator (1989-2000). He also served as associate attorney general under U.S. president Jimmy Carter.

Paul Broun Sr.

Paul Broun Sr.

Paul Broun Sr., pictured in the 1980s, served in the state senate from 1962 until 2000. A native of Randolph County, Broun was a businessman in Athens at the time of his election to the senate, where he served as chairman of the Appropriations Committee and the University System Committee.

Zell Miller and Paul Broun

Zell Miller and Paul Broun

Paul Broun (right), a state senator for thirty-eight consecutive years, is pictured in 1986 with Georgia lieutenant governor (later governor) Zell Miller. Broun and Miller worked together in the 1990s to establish the HOPE scholarship program.

Walter F. George

Walter F. George

U.S. senator Walter F. George (center) is pictured in 1951 at his Dooly County office with members of the Vienna Chamber of Commerce Housing Committee. George served in the U.S. Senate from 1922 until 1957.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, # clq085.

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Walter F. George

Walter F. George

Up to 1937 U.S. senator Walter F. George had supported most of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's major New Deal programs, but he joined a coalition of Republicans and conservative Democrats who resisted further reforms. In 1945 George supported Roosevelt's efforts to create the United Nations charter.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, National Photo Company Collection.

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Roosevelt, George, and Russell

Roosevelt, George, and Russell

Walter F. George (back seat, far right), one of Georgia's longest-serving members of the U.S. Senate (1922-57), drives through Warm Springs with President Franklin D. Roosevelt and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt in 1933. U.S. senator Richard B. Russell Jr. rides in the front seat.

Hugh Gillis

Hugh Gillis

With fifty-six years in office, Hugh Gillis of Treutlen County was the longest-serving member of the Georgia General Assembly. Gillis held powerful committee positions during his long legislative career, including president pro tempore of the senate.

Howard W. Odum

Howard W. Odum

A University of North Carolina sociologist, Howard W. Odum was one of the founders of the Southern Regional Council. Previously, he had been the president of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation.

Courtesy of Odum Institute for Research in Social Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Lillian Smith

Lillian Smith

Lillian Smith, pictured in 1945, refused to join the Southern Regional Council because she believed the organization should make the ending of segregation its top priority. She and Howard W. Odum held opposing views about the approach the council should take to achieve necessary reforms.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
rab360.

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Beaulieu Plantation

Beaulieu Plantation

This tree-lined drive marks the entrance to Beaulieu Plantation, the estate of William Stephens, who came to Savannah in 1737 to serve as secretary of Trustee Georgia. Beaulieu was one of the leading river plantations, and Stephens experimented with grape and cotton cultivation.

Photograph by Carol Ebel

Tuskegee Airmen

Tuskegee Airmen

The Tuskegee Airmen (including Charles Dryden) are pictured in late 1943, during World War II. The airmen excelled as bomber escorts, and they flew more than 15,000 combat sorties. Their excellent service led U.S. president Harry S. Truman to desegregate the U.S. military.

Courtesy of Museum of Aviation

Charles Dryden

Charles Dryden

One of the famed Tuskegee Airmen of World War II, Charles Dryden flew mostly P-40F Warhawks and P-51 Mustangs. A New York native, Dryden moved to Atlanta later in life.

Image from Dsdugan

North American P-51 “Mustang”

North American P-51 “Mustang”

The North American P-51 "Mustang" first entered service in the army air force in 1943. It was one of the most advanced fighters of World War II, serving as an escort for heavy bombers and as an attack and strafing aircraft. It also served in the Korean War.

Image from Alan Wilson

Seal of the Trustees

Seal of the Trustees

One face of the 1733 seal of the Georgia Trustees features two figures resting upon urns. They represent the Savannah and Altamaha rivers, which formed the northwestern and southeastern boundaries of the province. The genius of the colony is seated beside a cornucopia, with a cap of liberty on her head and a spear in one hand. The abbreviated Latin phrase Colonia Georgia Aug means "May the colony of Georgia prosper."

F-22 Raptor

F-22 Raptor

The F-22 fighter jet flew for the first time on September 7, 1997, from Dobbins Air Reserve Base in Marietta. At the beginning of this test flight, which lasted more than an hour, the aircraft reached an altitude of 15,000 feet in less than three minutes.

Lockheed Martin

Lockheed Martin

The Lockheed Martin plant in Marietta employs nearly 8,000 workers on two major projects, the C-130J cargo plane and the F-22 fighter plane.

C-130 Hercules

C-130 Hercules

Compared with earlier models of C-130 Hercules cargo planes, Lockheed Martin's C-130J has a higher cruising altitude and can reach 28,000 feet in fourteen minutes.

Photograph by Wikimedia

C-141 Starlifter

C-141 Starlifter

In the mid-1960s the Lockheed C-141 Starlifter became the first all-jet cargo plane to deploy in the U.S. Air Force. It quickly became the air force's airlift mainstay. Its wide body can accommodate a variety of missions, including personnel and equipment transport, disaster relief, and cargo supplies. 

Photograph by Wikimedia

C5-Galaxy

C5-Galaxy

One of the biggest aircraft ever made, Lockheed's C-5 Galaxy first flew in 1968. The plane has a wingspan of nearly 223 feet, is 247 feet long and 65 feet high, and can carry 135 tons of cargo. 

Photograph from the U.S. Air Force

Joseph E. Brown

Joseph E. Brown

The Civil War governor of Georgia, Joseph E. Brown was one of the most successful politicians in the state's history. A member of the Bourbon Triumvirate, Brown served as a U.S. senator from 1880 to 1890.

Alfred H. Colquitt

Alfred H. Colquitt

Alfred H. Colquitt, a member of the Bourbon Triumvirate, was elected governor of Georgia in 1876. Although his tenure was marked by controversial finances and other scandals, Colquitt is credited with advocating industrialization in the state as a means of recovering from the economic hardships of the Civil War.

From The History of the State of Georgia, by I. W. Avery

John B. Gordon

John B. Gordon

John B. Gordon, a renowned Confederate officer and political leader, was a member of the Farmers' Alliance in Georgia until the organization's split with the Democratic Party in 1892. A member of the Bourbon Triumvirate, Gordon served multiple terms in the U.S. Senate and, from 1886 to 1890, as governor of the state.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Brady-Handy Photograph Collection.

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Fort Peach Tree Replica

Fort Peach Tree Replica

A replica of Fort Peach Tree, which was erected on the banks of the Chattahoochee River in 1814 during the War of 1812, stands in Atlanta. The fort was used as a construction yard for the flatboats that carried shipments along the river to Fort Mitchell, in present-day Alabama.

Courtesy of Susan Barnard

Public Education

Public Education

Students in a Camden County public school participate in class. The Georgia Department of Education oversees all public schools in the state, ensuring that federal and state guidelines are met and administering a variety of programs, including the Migrant Education Program and the Georgia Virtual School.

Courtesy John La Boone

Color photograph of Richard Woods

Superintendent Richard Woods

Richard Woods has served as state school superintendent since 2015.

Harry Blackmun

Harry Blackmun

Harry Blackmun, pictured in 1976, served as a justice on the U.S. Supreme Court from 1970 until 1994.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Byron White

Byron White

Byron White, pictured in 1976, served as a justice on the U.S. Supreme Court from 1962 until 1993.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Henry McDaniel

Henry McDaniel

Henry McDaniel was elected governor in 1883 to replace Alexander Stephens, who died while in office. McDaniel was subsequently reelected to a full term in 1884. During his tenure, he oversaw a substantial reduction of the state's debt, the construction of the state capitol, and the establishment of the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Courtesy of Georgia Capitol Museum, University of Georgia Libraries