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Black and white photo of USS Savannah

USS Savannah (CL-42)

The fourth USS Savannah (CL-42) engaged in Atlantic and Meditteranean operations during World War II (1941-45), most notably Operation Torch, the allied invasion of North Africa.

Photograph by Naval History and Heritage Command

Black and white drawing of the USS Savannah

USS Savannah

The second USS Savannah completed naval operations in the Mexican and Civil Wars.  

From Old Naval Days: Sketches From the Life of Rear Admiral William Radford, U. S. N. by Sophie Radford De Meissner, Wikimedia

Black and white photo of USS Savannah (AS-8)

USS Savannah (AS-8)

The third USS Savannah (AS-8) served as a submarine tender during World War I (1917-18).

Photograph by Naval History and Heritage Command

General William T. Sherman

General William T. Sherman

In this photograph, taken by George N. Barnard, Union general William T. Sherman sits astride his horse at Federal Fort No. 7 in Atlanta. Sherman's Atlanta campaign, which lasted through the spring and summer of 1864, resulted in the fall of the city on September 2.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photograph by George N. Barnard, #LC-DIG-cwpb-03628.

Turnwold Plantation

Turnwold Plantation

Five enslaved people are pictured at Turnwold Plantation, the Eatonton estate of Joseph Addison Turner. Writer Joel Chandler Harris, who lived at Turnwold during the Civil War, drew upon his experiences there to write his Uncle Remus tales, as well as his autobiographical novel On the Plantation.

Margaret Mitchell

Margaret Mitchell

Margaret Mitchell's epic Civil War love story, Gone With the Wind, was published in June 1936. Mitchell was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for the novel in May 1937.

A Distant Flame

A Distant Flame

Philip Lee Williams, a native of Madison, won the 2004 Michael Shaara Prize for Civil War Fiction for his novel A Distant Flame (2004). The novel chronicles the experiences of protagonist Charlie Merrill before, during, and after the Atlanta campaign of 1864.

Sidney Root

Sidney Root

Sidney Root, a prominent Atlanta businessman, was an integral part of the Confederate war effort during the Civil War. He later served as the director of the International Cotton Exposition of 1881 in Atlanta and, as park commissioner for the city, was instrumental in the building of Grant Park.

Sidney Root’s House

Sidney Root’s House

After the fall of Atlanta in 1864, during the Civil War, Union troops occupied the home of Atlanta businessman Sidney Root. Root moved his family to New York City after the war and did not return until 1878. In the interim, he sold his house on South Collins Street to Joseph E. Brown, who served as the governor of Georgia during the war.

Courtesy of Atlanta History Center.

Primary Bible Questions for Young Children

Primary Bible Questions for Young Children

Sidney Root, a prominent Atlanta business leader and philanthropist, was a devout Baptist. In 1861 he published a booklet called Primary Bible Questions for Young Children, which sold around 20,000 copies. Pictured is the title page from the 1864 edition.

Bread Riots

Bread Riots

Hunger on the Georgia home front became so serious during the Civil War that food riots, with women as the main participants, broke out all across the state beginning in 1863.

From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper

Nancy Hill Morgan

Nancy Hill Morgan

During the Civil War, Nancy Hill Morgan cofounded the Nancy Harts Militia, a female military unit organized in LaGrange to protect the home front. Morgan, the wife of a Confederate soldier, served as captain of the militia.

Courtesy of Troup County Archives

Nancy Harts Historical Marker

Nancy Harts Historical Marker

In 1957 the Georgia Historical Commission erected a marker in LaGrange commemorating the Nancy Harts Militia, a female military unit named for Revolutionary War heroine Nancy Hart and organized to guard the city during the Civil War.

UCV Conference

UCV Conference

A conference of the United Confederate Veterans is pictured in Marietta, circa 1900. The UCV was founded in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1889 to unify the numerous Confederate veteran organizations across the South.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
cob017.

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Oglethorpe Infantry 1st Georgia Regiment

Oglethorpe Infantry 1st Georgia Regiment

Company D of the 1st Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry, known as the Oglethorpe Infantry, are pictured in Augusta in April 1861, at the beginning of the Civil War. This unit was among the first to form a veterans' organization, the Oglethorpe Light Infantry Association in Savannah, at the war's end in 1865.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ric051.

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Charles C. Jones Jr.

Charles C. Jones Jr.

Charles C. Jones Jr. was the foremost Georgia historian of the nineteenth century. Beginning after the Civil War and continuing into the 1880s, Jones collected Confederate service records and reminiscences of former soliders.

Confederate Soldiers’ Home

Confederate Soldiers’ Home

Confederate Soldiers' Home, located at 410 Confederate Avenue in Atlanta, was built in 1902 to house aging Confederate veterans of the Civil War. The Inman family provided a portion of the funds necessary for the home's completion.

John B. Gordon

John B. Gordon

John B. Gordon rose to prominence during the Civil War, entering as a captain and emerging as a major general. He later served as a U.S. senator and as the governor of Georgia.

Photograph by Wikimedia

Katharine Du Pre Lumpkin

Katharine Du Pre Lumpkin

Lumpkin is best known for her autobiographical novel, The Making of a Southerner (1947), which describes her transition from passive inheritance of white supremacy to conscious rejection of the racial values of a segregated South.

From The Making of a Southerner, by K. D. Lumpkin

UCV Reunion, 1912

UCV Reunion, 1912

Attendees of the 1912 national United Confederate Veterans reunion are pictured in Macon, which hosted the event that year. Macon was the only Georgia city besides Atlanta to host the general reunion of the UCV.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
bib028.

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Confederate Veterans

Confederate Veterans

Four Confederate veterans attend a reunion in Thomasville in October 1924.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
tho064.

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Kennesaw Mountain

Kennesaw Mountain

Kennesaw Mountain, pictured after Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston's retreat from the area in July 1864, was the site of an important battle on June 27, 1864. Although Johnston's troops won the battle, they continued to retreat as Union general William T. Sherman advanced toward Atlanta, located about twenty miles to the southeast.

From Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, by G. N. Barnard

Old Stone Church

Old Stone Church

The Old Stone Church in Ringgold was built in 1849 and served as a hospital during the Civil War for troops on both sides of the conflict. The original altar and pews of the church, which today houses a Civil War museum, are still intact.

Courtesy of Catoosa County News

Kate: The Journal of a Confederate Nurse

Kate: The Journal of a Confederate Nurse

Kate Cumming, a native of Scotland, traveled into Georgia with the Army of Tennessee as a hospital matron during the Civil War. During that time she kept a journal, which was originally published in 1866 as A Journal of Hospital Life in the Confederate Army. Pictured is the cover from a 1998 edition.

Macon City Hall

Macon City Hall

Macon City Hall, constructed in 1837, was used as a field hospital during the Civil War and served as the temporary state capitol during the final months of the war. This photograph of the building was taken in 1894.

Gordon-Lee Mansion

Gordon-Lee Mansion

The Gordon-Lee Mansion in Chickamauga, built by prominent resident James Gordon, was completed in 1847 and later served as a hospital during the Civil War. The property was subsequently purchased by James Lee and remained in the Lee family until 1974. Today the home is open to the public as a bed and breakfast.

First Presbyterian Church, Augusta

First Presbyterian Church, Augusta

In 1857 Joseph Ruggles Wilson, father of Woodrow Wilson, accepted the pastorate of First Presbyterian Church, located at 642 Telfair Street in Augusta. The church was used as a Confederate hospital during the Civil War.

Pickett’s Mill Cannon

Pickett’s Mill Cannon

A cannon stands at the Pickett's Mill Battlefield Historic Site in Paulding County, the site of a battle in May 1864 in which Confederate forces prevented Union general William T. Sherman's troops from moving on Atlanta.

Courtesy of Pickett's Mill Battlefield Historic Site

Battle of Pickett’s Mill

Battle of Pickett’s Mill

This drawing, rendered by a Civil War artist, depicts the Battle of Pickett's Mill, which took place in Paulding County in May 1864. The battle was siginificant in that it marked the beginning of trench warfare.

Courtesy of Pickett's Mill Battlefield Historic Site

Pickett’s Mill Reenactors

Pickett’s Mill Reenactors

Reenactors of the Battle of Pickett's Mill examine weaponry. The battle, which prevented the Union advance on Atlanta during the Civil War, took place in Paulding County in May 1864.

Courtesy of Pickett's Mill Battlefield Historic Site

Pickett’s Mill Battlefield Area

Pickett’s Mill Battlefield Area

The site of the Battle of Pickett's Mill, covering 765 acres in Paulding County, was gradually acquired by the state from 1973 until 1981. In 1990 the park opened to the public as the Pickett's Mill Battlefield Historic Site, commemorating the Civil War battle that took place there in May 1864.

Courtesy of Pickett's Mill Battlefield Historic Site

Pickett’s Mill Earthworks

Pickett’s Mill Earthworks

Earthworks built during the Battle of Pickett's Mill, a Civil War engagement that occurred in May 1864, are still evident at the Pickett's Mill Battlefield Historic Site in Paulding County.

Courtesy of Pickett's Mill Battlefield Historic Site

Oakland Cemetery

Oakland Cemetery

Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta is the final resting place for 6,900 Confederate soliders, including 5 generals, as well as 16 Union soldiers.

Ren and Helen Davis

Stonewall Confederate Cemetery

Stonewall Confederate Cemetery

Around 500 Confederate soldiers and 1 Union soldier are buried at the Stonewall Confederate Cemetery in Griffin.

Photograph by Melinda Smith Mullikin, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Linwood Cemetery

Linwood Cemetery

The Confederate section of Linwood Cemetery in Columbus holds around 200 Confederate soldiers killed during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Historic Linwood Foundation, Inc.

Marietta National Cemetery

Marietta National Cemetery

The Marietta National Cemetery is located at 500 Washington Avenue in Marietta. There are more than 10,000 Union soldiers buried here, with approximately 3,000 of them unknown. Confederate soldiers were interred at a separate Confederate cemetery in Marietta.

Image from Ron Zanoni

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Andersonville National Cemetery

Andersonville National Cemetery

Andersonville National Cemetery in Macon County holds approximately 13,000 Union soldiers who died while imprisoned at Andersonville Prison in 1864-65. It was designated a national cemetery in 1866 and is managed today by the National Park Service.

Image from Bubba73 (talk), Jud McCranie

Blue and Gray Days

Blue and Gray Days

Grandsons of Union and Confederate Civil War veterans are pictured in 1965 at the "Blue and Gray Days" event in Fitzgerald during the Civil War Centennial. Centennial events, held from 1961 to 1965, commemorated the 100th anniversary of the Civil War.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ben312.

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Peter Zack Geer

Peter Zack Geer

Peter Zack Geer served as the first chairman of the Georgia Civil War Centennial Commission, beginning in 1959. In 1963 he was elected lieutenant governor of Georgia.

Civil War Reenacting

Civil War Reenacting

Confederate reenactors crew a half-scale cannon at the Civil War centennial reenactment of the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in June 1964.

From Centennial Commemoration, Battle of Kennesaw Mountain--June 27, 1864-1964: Official Souvenir Program

Centennial’s Grand Finale

Centennial’s Grand Finale

The Civil War Centennial in Georgia ended in 1965 with the mayor of Fitzgerald stamping a letter with a cancellation stamp reading "Georgia's Grand Finale Civil War Centennial."

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
ben353.

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Reminiscences of My Life in Camp

Reminiscences of My Life in Camp

Originally published in 1902, Reminiscences of My Life in Camp, by Susie King Taylor, is the only surviving description of the Civil War written by an African American woman.

Diary of Dolly Lunt Burge

Diary of Dolly Lunt Burge

Dolly Sumner Lunt Burge's memoir of life on a Covington-area plantation during the Civil War was published in 1918 as A Woman's Wartime Journal. The cover of a 2006 edition by the University of Georgia Press is pictured.

Co. Aytch

Co. Aytch

Sam Watkins's Co. Aytch, originally published during 1881-82 in a Tennessee newspaper, is among the best-known military memoirs of the Civil War. The book chronicles Watkins's experiences in Georgia at the battles of Chickamauga, Resaca, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta, and Jonesboro.

Requiem for a Lost City

Requiem for a Lost City

A memoir of life in Atlanta during the Civil War written by Sarah "Sallie" Conley Clayton was published as Requeim for a Lost City: A Memoir of Civil War Atlanta and the Old South by Mercer University Press in 1999.

Sam Richards’s Civil War Diary

Sam Richards’s Civil War Diary

Samuel Pearce Richards, a prominent nineteenth-century merchant in Atlanta, kept a diary for sixty-seven years. In 2009 the University of Georgia Press published the portions of his diary covering the Civil War as Sam Richards's Civil War Diary.

On the Plantation

On the Plantation

On the Plantation: A Story of a Georgia Boy's Adventures during the War (1892) is a fictionalized account of author Joel Chandler Harris's experiences of the Civil War at Turnwold, the Putnam County plantation of Joseph Addison Turner.

William T. Sherman

William T. Sherman

Ohio native and Union general William T. Sherman lost the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in June 1864. In September of that same year his army captured Atlanta before embarking on its March to the Sea, from Atlanta to Savannah, in November. Sherman later chronicled his wartime experiences in a memoir, published in 1875.

The Secret Eye

The Secret Eye

From 1849 to 1889 Augusta resident Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas kept a journal, which includes her experiences during the Civil War. Selections from the journal were published in 1990 as The Secret Eye.

Journal of a Landlady

Journal of a Landlady

Unionist Louisa Fletcher ran a hotel with her husband in Marietta during the Civil War. During that time she kept a diary, which was published in 1995 as Journal of a Landlady.

Andersonville Prison as seen by John L. Ransom

Andersonville Prison as seen by John L. Ransom

John Ransom, a Union prisoner at Andersonville Prison during the Civil War, first published his journal, Andersonville Diary, in 1881. One of the best-known Civil War narratives, the diary includes graphic descriptions of the camp's deplorable conditions.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

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Railroad Destruction

Railroad Destruction

A drawing published in October 1863 depicts Confederate guerrillas destroying rail lines used to supply Union forces during the Civil War. In Georgia, Confederate guerrillas worked to dismantle the Western and Atlantic Railroad, vital to supplying Union general William T. Sherman's troops.

From Harper's Weekly

Guerrilla Warfare

Guerrilla Warfare

The rescue of a wounded Union officer from an attack by Confederate guerrillas is depicted in a Harper's Weekly drawing from December 1863. Guerrilla warfare in Georgia during the Civil War occurred primarily in the northern mountains and the southern swamp and wiregrass regions.

From Harper's Weekly

Joseph E. Brown

Joseph E. Brown

Joseph E. Brown served as governor of Georgia during the Civil War. After the war, Brown left the Democratic Party for a time to join the Republican Party, which was in power throughout the Reconstruction era. In 1868 he was appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia by Republican governor Rufus Bullock.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Joseph Wheeler

Joseph Wheeler

General Joseph Wheeler, born near Augusta, commanded U.S. volunteers in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. Wheeler also served during the Civil War and the Philippine Insurrection, and authored several books on military and civil subjects. Wheeler County, in central Georgia, is named in his honor.

From The Conflict with Spain and Conquest of the Philippines, by H. F. Keenan

Sherman’s March to the Sea

Sherman’s March to the Sea

Union general William T. Sherman devastated the Georgia countryside during his march to the sea. His men destroyed all sources of food and forage, often in retaliation for the activities of local Confederate guerrillas.

From Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, vol 4., edited by R. U. Johnson and C. C. Clough Buel

W. T. Wofford

W. T. Wofford

W. T. Wofford, pictured on a postcard distributed in 1881 during the International Cotton Exposition in Atlanta, was a military leader and state legislator. A native of Habersham County, Wofford served in both the Mexican War and Civil War.

Henry M. Judah

Henry M. Judah

Union general Henry M. Judah negotiated the surrender of Confederate forces in north Georgia with Confederate general W. T. Wofford on May 12, 1865.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Secession Ordinance

Secession Ordinance

On January 21, 1861, the ordinance of secession was publicly signed in a ceremony by Georgia politicians. Two days earlier, delegates to a convention in Milledgeville voted 208 to 89 for the state to secede from the Union.

Robert Toombs

Robert Toombs

Wilkes County native Robert Toombs, pictured circa 1865, served briefly as the Confederate government's secretary of state and as a brigadier general during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Refugees on March to the Sea

Refugees on March to the Sea

A sketch, published in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper on March 18, 1865, depicts newly emancipated African Americans following Union general William T. Sherman's march to the sea at the end of 1864. As many as 7,000 freedmen and freedwomen may have joined in the march.

From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper

Marching through Georgia

Marching through Georgia

Marching through Georgia, one of the best-known songs of the Civil War, was composed in 1865 by Henry Clay Work. The song celebrates the success of Union general William T. Sherman's march to the sea in 1864.

United Daughters of the Confederacy

United Daughters of the Confederacy

Members of the Margaret Jones Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy are pictured in Waynesboro, circa 1900. Lillian W. Neely (center of top row in white dress) was president of the chapter at this time. The Georgia Division of the UDC was formed in 1895.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
bur013.

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Mildred Lewis Rutherford

Mildred Lewis Rutherford

Mildred Lewis Rutherford taught at the Lucy Cobb Institute in Athens from 1880 to 1928, serving as principal of the school for twenty-two of those years. A prominent member of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and an advocate for the "Lost Cause" interpretation of the Civil War, Rutherford also published a number of books on southern history.

United Daughters of the Confederacy

United Daughters of the Confederacy

Members of the Lanier of Glynn Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, pictured in 1979, decorate a monument in Brantley County dedicated to Confederate soldiers who died of yellow fever during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
bra001.

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Stone Mountain Carving

Stone Mountain Carving

The carving on Stone Mountain depicts the Confederate icons Robert E. Lee, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, and Jefferson Davis. Commissioned by the president of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, the sculptor Gutzon Borglum began work on the relief in 1915. He was fired in 1925, and Augustus Lukeman completed the carving.

Photograph by Mark Griffin, Wikimedia

Cross of Honor Recipients

Cross of Honor Recipients

Descendants of Confederate veterans who served in World War I received the Cross of Honor from the United Daughters of the Confederacy in Thomasville, circa 1920.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
tho253.

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Children of the Confederacy

Children of the Confederacy

The C. C. Sanders Chapter of Children of the Confederacy is pictured around 1910 in Hall County. In the 1950s United Daughters of the Confederacy president Mabel Sessions Dennis organized the national Children of the Confederacy, which remains active today.

Courtesy of Hall County Library System, Georgia Historical Photograph Collection.

Augusta Confederate Monument

Augusta Confederate Monument

The Confederate monument in downtown Augusta, erected in 1878, honors generals Robert E. Lee, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, William H. T. Walker, and Thomas R. R. Cobb, whose figures surround the base. A statue of Augusta native Berry Benson, who served in the Confederate army, is perched atop the monument to represent an anonymous soldier.

Photograph by Melinda Smith Mullikin, New Georgia Encyclopedia

Monument to Confederate Women

Monument to Confederate Women

This marble statue, located in front of the Thomson Depot in Thomson (McDuffie County), is one of the few monuments commemorating the contributions of Southern women to the Confederate effort during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Watson-Brown Foundation, Inc.

Rome Confederate Monument

Rome Confederate Monument

A soldier stands atop the Confederate monument at Myrtle Hill Cemetery in Rome. The original monument, dedicated in 1887, featured a large funeral urn on top of the monument. In 1910 the soldier replaced the urn, and the monument was rededicated. Its pedestal, shaft, and soldier configuration is representative of the most common type of Confederate monument in Georgia.

Photograph by David N. Wiggins

Chickamauga Confederate Monument

Chickamauga Confederate Monument

The Confederate monument at Chickamauga National Park, the first military park in the country, was dedicated on May 4, 1899. The eighty-six-foot-tall granite monument features four large bronze figures and honors the men from Georgia who fought at the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863. The monument has the only figure of an artilleryman in the state.

Photograph by David N. Wiggins

Savannah Confederate Monument

Savannah Confederate Monument

The original Confederate monument in Savannah, pictured circa 1875, was dedicated in 1875 and located in Forsyth Park. The ornate sandstone monument featured two Greek goddesses, Judgement and Silence. In 1879 the goddesses were removed, and a soldier was added to the top.

Courtesy of David N. Wiggins

LaFayette Confederate Monument

LaFayette Confederate Monument

The dedication ceremony for a new Confederate monument in LaFayette took place in April 2002. The monument features a twelve-foot-wide tablet listing the names of Walker County citizens who fought for the Confederacy during the Civil War.

Photograph by David N. Wiggins

Fort McAllister

Fort McAllister

Fort McAllister, situated on the Ogeechee River in Bryan County, played a key role in the defense of Savannah from Union forces during the Civil War. The fort is pictured circa 1864, the year in which it was captured by Union general William T. Sherman's forces.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Fingal

Fingal

The Fingal was employed in November 1861 by blockade-runner Edward C. Anderson to bring much-needed supplies for the Confederacy into Savannah during the Civil War. The Fingal's success in breaking the blockade alerted Union forces to secure waters off the Georgia coast.

Courtesy of U.S. Naval Historical Center

CSS Atlanta

CSS Atlanta

A model of the CSS Atlanta, a Confederate ironclad, is on display at the Ships of the Sea Museum in Savannah. The Confederate navy hoped to break the Union blockade and occupation of the Georgia coast with this and other vessels but was ultimately overpowered by the Union navy.

Courtesy of Ships of the Sea Museum

Siege of Fort Pulaski

Siege of Fort Pulaski

Union captain Quincy Gillmore of the Engineer Corps, in charge of preparing the siege on Fort Pulaski, ordered his engineers to construct a series of eleven artillery batteries along the north shore of Tybee Island.

Fort McAllister

Fort McAllister

During 1862 and 1863, Fort McAllister repelled seven Union naval attacks. Fort McAllister never fell to Union naval forces because of its unique earthen construction. In 1864 Union general William T. Sherman's army captured the fort from the landward side.

Photograph from Wikimedia

Fort McAllister

Fort McAllister

A signal station on the Ogeechee River, at Fort McAllister. After General William T. Sherman's Union troops occupied Fort McAllister on December 13, 1864, personnel were ordered to dismantle the stronghold in preparation for Sherman's march northward.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

USS Water Witch

USS Water Witch

The USS Water Witch, a wooden-hulled side-wheel gunboat, was used by the Union navy during the Civil War to blockade the Georgia coast. In June 1864 the ship was captured by Confederate raiders, who burned it six months later to prevent its recapture by Union general William T. Sherman's troops.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Renactment Crew on Water Witch

Renactment Crew on Water Witch

Naval reenactors are pictured on board the replica of the USS during its commissioning in 2009 at the National Civil War Naval Museum at Port Columbus.

Courtesy of National Civil War Naval Museum at Port Columbus

Water Witch Replica

Water Witch Replica

A replica of the USS Water Witch, completed in 2009, sits outside the National Civil War Naval Museum at Port Columbus.

Courtesy of the National Civil War Naval Museum at Port Columbus

Battle of Chickamauga

Battle of Chickamauga

The Battle of Chickamauga, the largest battle fought in Georgia during the Civil War, took place in Walker County on September 18-20, 1863. Confederate troops under Braxton Bragg prevented Union troops under William S. Rosecrans from entering Georgia, but each side sustained heavy casualties; around 16,000 Union and 18,000 Confederate.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Union Soldiers

Union Soldiers

Union general William T. Sherman's troops remove ammunition in wheelbarrows from Fort McAllister (Bryan County) in 1864, following their successful March to the Sea.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Selected Civil War photographs, 1861-1865, #LC-B8171-3503.

Fort Pulaski

Fort Pulaski

Fort Pulaski, situated on Cockspur Island at the mouth of the Savannah River, was built in the 1830s and 1840s to defend Savannah. During the Civil War, Union forces captured the fort on April 11, 1862, and controlled it for the remainder of the war.

Photograph by Brooke Novak

Georgia Generals

Georgia Generals

Generals from Georgia who served in Virginia during the Civil War include (left to right, top to bottom): James Longstreet, Howell Cobb, Ambrose R. Wright, A. H. Colquitt, T. R. R. Cobb, Robert Toombs, William D. Smith, Paul J. Semmes, and Alfred Iverson Jr.

Confederate Currency

Confederate Currency

A $100 bill issued by the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. The printing of paper money during the war resulted in massive inflation throughout the South.

Photograph by Wikimedia

African American “Contrabands”

African American “Contrabands”

As Union troops entered the state during the Civil War, enslaved Georgians took the opportunity to escape under their protection. The Union army established "contraband" camps to provide food and shelter for the newly freed African Americans.

Photograph by Wikimedia

Georgia Generals

Georgia Generals

Generals from Georgia who served in Virginia during the Civil War include (left to right, top to bottom): G. T. Anderson, W. T. Wofford, E. L. Thomas, Henry L. Benning, John B. Gordon, George Doles, Edward Willis, Goode Bryan, and William M. Browne.

Capture of Jefferson Davis

Capture of Jefferson Davis

Confederate president Jefferson Davis tried to flee as Union soldiers surrounded his camp in Irwinville on May 10, 1865. He had thrown his wife's raglan, or overcoat, on his shoulders, which led to the persistent rumor that he attempted to flee in women's clothes.

Photograph from Wikimedia

Confederate Earthworks

Confederate Earthworks

From such fortifications as this earthwork in front of Atlanta, Confederate general John B. Hood defended the city from Sherman's attack. Sherman bombarded the city for five weeks, but Hood did not order an evacuation of Atlanta until all rail lines leading into the city had been destroyed.

From Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, by G. N. Barnard

Civil War Soldier

Civil War Soldier

Photo of an unidentified Civil War bugler; buglers were necessary for the telling of time and duties in the camps as well as guiding the actions of troops in battle.

Confederate Earthwork

Confederate Earthwork

The remains of a Confederate earthwork, used during the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in June 1864. In the1930s archaeologist Charles Fairbanks, in one of the earliest Civil War excavations, documented the earthworks on top of Kennesaw Mountain in Cobb County.

Courtesy of Garrett W. Silliman

Civil War Bullets

Civil War Bullets

Bullets recovered during archaeological excavations at the Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield site in Cobb County include standard federal issue .58 caliber Minie-type bullets (top row), a case-shot (bottom left), and a Williams cleaner bullet (bottom right). Primary documents indicate that these artifacts were recovered from the site of a Union army bivouac.

Courtesy of Garrett W. Silliman

Schofield’s Iron Works

Schofield’s Iron Works

Schofield's Iron Works in Macon, founded around 1859 and pictured in 1876, was an active foundry during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
bib078.

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New Manchester Mill Ruins

New Manchester Mill Ruins

The ruins of New Manchester Mill at Sweetwater Creek State Park in Douglas County are pictured in 2017. One of the largest factories in Georgia during the Civil War, the mill was burned in 1864 by Union general William T. Sherman's troops during their march to the sea.

Confederate Powder Works

Confederate Powder Works

The Confederate Powder Works in Augusta sits along the Augusta Canal. The canal, which opened in 1846, provided transportation and waterpower during the Civil War for the powder works, as well as for a Confederate firearms plant, ordnance foundry, and bakery.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

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George W. Rains

George W. Rains

In 1861 Colonel George W. Rains selected Augusta as the site for the Confederate Powder Works and oversaw its construction on the Augusta Canal. Completed in 1862, the factory produced 3 million pounds of gunpowder by the end of the Civil War in 1865.

Image from Lewis Historical Pub. Co., New York

Pistol Factory

Pistol Factory

Pictured circa 1880, this facility in Greensboro was the site of a Confederate pistol factory, owned by the manufactuer Leech and Rigdon of Memphis, Tennessee, during the Civil War.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
grn254.

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Parrott Gun

Parrott Gun

Parrott rifled cannons, used by both Confederate and Union armies during the Civil War, were produced for the Confederate army at the Macon Armory in Bibb County. African Americans and white women comprised a substantial portion of the workforce at the armory during the war.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Confederate Soldier in Uniform

Confederate Soldier in Uniform

Confederate solider Theophalus Rumble, of Monroe County, is pictured in his uniform during the Civil War. Textile mills in Georgia struggled during the war years to produce adequate amounts of cloth for uniforms, blankets, and tents.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, #
mnr069.

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Sherman’s Troops

Sherman’s Troops

Union army troops under General William T. Sherman destroy railroad tracks in Atlanta during the Atlanta campaign of 1864. Railroads, an integral component of Civil War industry, were a major target for Sherman's forces.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Veterans’ Gun Drill

Veterans’ Gun Drill

Confederate veterans, pictured in the 1880s, perform a mock gun drill with twelve-pound Napoleon howitzer in front of the Macon Volunteers Armory building in Macon.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, # bib258-88.

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William G. “Parson” Brownlow

William G. “Parson” Brownlow

William G. "Parson" Brownlow, a future Tennessee governor and U.S. senator, was a prominent Southern Unionist during the Civil War. He defined a true Unionist as one who held both an "uncompromising devotion" to the Union and "unmitigated hostility" to the Confederacy, as well as a willingness to risk life and property "in defense of the Glorious Stars and Stripes."

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Battle of Resaca

Battle of Resaca

The Battle of Resaca was fought during the Civil War on May 14-15, 1864, in Gordon County. Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston's troops were able to slow, but not halt, the progress of Union general William T. Sherman's forces into Georgia.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Joseph E. Johnston

Joseph E. Johnston

Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston attempted to counter Union general William T. Sherman's drive toward Atlanta in 1864, beginning with the Battle of Resaca in May, by defensive tactics alone. Frustrated by Johnston's unwillingness to attack, Confederate president Jefferson Davis replaced him with General John B. Hood on July 17.

From The History of the State of Georgia, by I. W. Avery

Battle of Resaca

Battle of Resaca

The Battle of Resaca, which took place on May 14-15, 1864, in Gordon County, represented the first major engagement of Union general William T. Sherman's Atlanta campaign. The Union army suffered around 2,800 casualities, as did Confederate forces led by General Joseph E. Johnston.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Resaca Battlefield

Resaca Battlefield

The first major engagement of Union general William T. Sherman's Atlanta campaign occurred in 1864 at Resaca, near Dalton. Through the efforts of the Georgia Civil War Commission, which seeks to preserve sites associated with the war, the state purchased 508 acres of the battlefield in 2000.

Benjamin Harrison

Benjamin Harrison

Union colonel (and future U.S. president) Benjamin Harrison, leading the 70th Indiana Regiment, overtook a four-gun Confederate battery on May 15, 1864, during the Battle of Resaca.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Resaca Confederate Cemetery

Resaca Confederate Cemetery

The entrance to Resaca Confederate Cemetery in Gordon County is pictured in 1908. Approximately 2,800 men from each side died during the Battle of Resaca, in May 1864 during the Civil War. The graves of more than 450 Confederate soldiers are buried in the cemetery, which was dedicated in 1866.

Courtesy of Georgia Archives, Vanishing Georgia, # gor326.

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CSS Jackson

CSS Jackson

The CSS Jackson, a Confederate ironclad built during the Civil War, is pictured in 1864 on the Chattahoochee River at Columbus.

Courtesy of U.S. Naval Historical Center

CSS Savannah Explodes

CSS Savannah Explodes

On December 21, 1864, Confederate troops under Josiah Tattnall exploded the CSS Savannah on the South Carolina coast to prevent its falling into Union hands.

From Harper's Weekly

Voter Registration

Voter Registration

Freedmen, pictured in September 1867, registered to vote during Congressional Reconstruction in drives conducted by the U.S. military. Between 1867 and 1872, sixty-nine African Americans from Georgia served either as delegates to the 1867 constitutional convention or as members of the state legislature.

From Harper's Weekly

James M. Smith

James M. Smith

James M. Smith, a Confederate veteran and native of Twiggs County, served as the governor of Georgia from 1872 to 1877. Smith's election marked the end of Reconstruction in the state.

Courtesy of Georgia Capitol Museum, University of Georgia Libraries

Rufus Bullock

Rufus Bullock

Republican candidate Rufus Bullock defeated his Democratic opponent John B. Gordon in Georgia's 1868 gubernatorial election. Bullock's term in office was marked by allegations of fraud and corruption, and in 1871 he fled the state to avoid impeachment by the newly elected Democratic majorities in both state houses.

Photograph by Wikimedia

Etowah Mounds

Etowah Mounds

The Etowah Mounds in Bartow County include one of the largest Indian mounds in North America. The mounds, constructed during the Mississippian Period, served as platforms for public buildings in a town that occupied the site from around 1100 until the 1600s.

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle

Rock Eagle, a stone effigy built by Native Americans during the Woodland Period, circa A.D. 200, is located in Putnam County. The structure, made of quartz cobbles, measures 102 feet across the wings.

Courtesy of Explore Georgia, Photograph by Ralph Daniel.

Indian Projectile Points

Indian Projectile Points

Commonly known as "arrowheads," millions of projectile points have been found throughout Georgia. These projectile points were made by Creek Indians in middle Georgia.

Courtesy of Forestry Images. Photograph by Billy Humphries, Forest Resource Consultants, Inc.

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

De Soto Crossing the Chattahoochee

A drawing from Lambert A. Wilmer's Life, Travels and Adventures of Ferdinand de Soto, Discoverer of the Mississippi (1859) depicts Hernando de Soto and his men crossing the Chattahoochee River. The accidental introduction of European diseases by explorers destroyed many of the civilizations along the river's banks.

Courtesy of Florida State Archives, Photographic Collection.

Georgia Trustees

Georgia Trustees

This oil painting by William Verelst shows the founders of Georgia, the Georgia Trustees, and a delegation of Georgia Indians in July 1734. One year later the Trustees persuaded the British government to support a ban on slavery in Georgia.

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Georgia Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Button Gwinnett, George Walton, and Lyman Hall were the three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence.

Battle of Kettle Creek

Battle of Kettle Creek

This sketch, likely a small portion of a larger work, depicts the Battle of Kettle Creek, which took place in Wilkes County on February 14, 1779, during the Revolutionary War. The original caption reads: "Engagement between the Whigs and Tories."

Courtesy of Kettle Creek Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution

Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney

The inventor of the cotton gin, Eli Whitney lived in Georgia for just a year, on Catharine Greene's Mulberry Grove plantation near Savannah. After learning of the difficulty planters had with separating seeds from fibers in upland, or "short-staple," cotton, he set out to create a machine that could perform such a task more efficiently. His invention, the cotton gin, revolutionized the southern economy.

Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College

Wesleyan College, founded in Macon in 1836, was the first college in the world to grant degrees to women. Pictured is the Candler Alumnae Building, which was originally used as a library. Today the building houses the offices of Alumnae Affairs, Institutional Advancement, and Development.

Courtesy of Wesleyan College

Cherokee Trail of Tears

Cherokee Trail of Tears

In his 1942 painting Cherokee Trail of Tears, Robert Lindneux depicts the forced journey of the Cherokees in 1838 to present-day Oklahoma.

Courtesy of Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

Andersonville Prison

Andersonville Prison

Union prisoners of war are pictured at the Andersonville Prison in Macon County on August 17, 1864. Malnutrition and poor sanitary conditions at the camp led to the deaths of nearly 13,000 of Andersonville's 45,000 prisoners, the highest mortality rate of any Civil War prison.

Courtesy of Civil War Treasures, New-York Historical Society